In recent years, technology advancement has changed rapidly. Learners become digital natives as soon as they are exposed to ICT and it impacts their learning. A traditional face-to-face interaction only may not fit the learners' profiles. Therefore, teachers should make use of ICT to support face-to-face interaction. In supporting face-to-face interaction with ICT, teachers may implement blended learning. Blended learning integrates the use of technology with the best features of face-to-face interaction. Hence, implementing blended learning encourages teachers to select teaching approaches that fit with the learners' current profiles as digital natives. Digital natives do not belong to any particular generations but they have grown up using technology. This paper suggests how the implementation of blended learning benefits foreign language learners to foster their learning autonomy. Learning autonomy is vital in EFL context. Without learning autonomy, learners study in limitations. That way, improvement will hardly be achieved.
Blended learning, digital natives, English language instruction, learning autonomy
Nowadays, students are no longer regarded as cyber immigrants, instead they are cyber natives who deserve technological use in many fields of study including learning English. In other words, the use of technological media is obligatory for English teachers. One of the newest, though not the most popular, forms of media applied in ELT is video game. Commonly, video game used in ELT is the offline ones, yet, today, online learning is also encouraged. Hence, MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game) is seen as a promising medium to facilitate students in learning English online. In this plenary paper, the researchers conduct literature review of a fair amount of research about the implementation of MMORPG in ELT. The aims of this paper are to identify: (1) the advantages and disadvantages of MMORPG; (2) the procedures in implementing MMORPG; and (3) the obstacles in the implementation of MMORPG in ELT.
Surveys carried out in some countries show that more than half of labours have inadequate literacy skills to work in environments with knowledgeable society. Hence, as an institution orientating to workforce supply, vocational education is expected to instil a habit of literacy practice, which will encourage the improvement of graduates' literacy competence. This study aims to discuss literacy practice in vocational engineering education, which supports the mastery of engineering literacy. In this research, literacy practices focus in the surveying and mapping fields. This study was carried out using semi-structured interview. Participants in this study were three tutors were from the Vocational Engineering Education Department. Data collected were results of the interviews, students' fieldwork reports, and field observation. Findings from this study indicated that a habit of reading manuals or standards in engineering was considered low. Meanwhile, handwriting literacy habit was rare. Moreover, practical students tended to make detailed engineering design using computer applications. Communication ability to transfer information and ideas related to the results of vocational works was good, supported with technology-based presentation media..
Engineering literacy, literacy practice, vocational education, surveying and mapping
The aim of this study is to determine the existence of science process skills (SPS) on the topic of reaction rate. The research design used survey as the methodology. The sample contained 40 students from Grade 11 at one senior high school in Karanganyar, Indonesia. The science process skills of the students were assessed using a performance assessment and observation sheets. The instrument used for performance assessment is a rubric that consists of descriptions of four levels of performance, comprising low, medium, high and very high. The science process skills assessed were observing, data recording, communicating, inferring, experimenting and data interpreting. Results showed that the highest value for science process skills was achieved in communication and the lowest in data recording.
Chemistry, problem solving, reaction rate, science process skills
Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) has become a prominent approach in science educational reform in all countries. This research is a case study to analyse the practices of IBSE in the science class of one Junior High School in Chiang Rai, Thailand, as part of the overseas teaching practicum project conducted by SEAMEO. Respondents were two Filipino teachers of the English Programme Class, and have worked for three years. Adaptation of IBSE in the curriculum was captured by analysing the Thai's science curriculum. The concepts of IBSE were analysed in the teachers' syllabus and lesson plans. A series of classroom observation was also done to check the real practices of IBSE, while all activities were noted and recorded. Additional information on teachers' perspectives on IBSE had been obtained through structured interviews. Analysis was based on the Tafoya's concept of inquiry levels to examine the type of inquiry. The research confirmed that the concept of IBSE has been written in the lower secondary science curriculum in Thailand. Both teachers have shown relatively good perspectives on science and IBSE, and commonly applied the structured inquiry, in which teachers still dominate the learning process, but students have also been involved.
Inquiry-based science, junior high school, Thailand
Batik, the fabled cloth, is native to the Southeast Asian society. It is known both as an art and craft, which is employing wax-resist, dye-painting techniques that are applied to the fabric. This paper proposes a viability study for an online course offering batik learning. The discussion summarises contemporary online course platforms, as well as course providers. Despite the fact that other components may be involved in the delivery, the approaches predominantly rely on the use of web-based communication to convey the course materials. A case study research method was employed to discern the phenomenon in a granular view. The study explores the viability of offering the existing, on-campus batik course from an international unit of a respectable university in Indonesia, as an online course. The paper focuses on four aspects, including the instructional delivery, market feasibility, consideration of the legal aspect and operational feasibility of the course. Providing it as an online course, however, might not be as simple as converting the course material into digital versions. The paper concludes with the potential advantages of an online course for the university.
The current research objective is to test the model of Social Capital and Entrepreneurial Orientation towards Entrepreneurial Performance of the creative industries in a developing country. The research specifically aims to contribute to the entrepreneurship theories on creative industries. The samples are the creative entrepreneurs in the design, fashions and crafts businesses in several cities in the Central Java province, Indonesia. Results of Partial Least Squares (PLS) inferred that, firstly, there is a positive and significant influence of social capital on Innovativeness, Competitive Aggressiveness and autonomy. Second, there is a negative and significant influence between social capital and, Proactiveness and risk-taking. Third, there is a positive and significant influence of Innovativeness, Proactiveness, Competitive Aggressiveness and autonomy in entrepreneurial performance. Risk-taking, however, only provides an insignificant positive influence toward performance. It can be concluded that Innovativeness, Competitive Aggressiveness, and Autonomy of the creative industries are important toward entrepreneurial performance; however, entrepreneurs should also need to consider their position in the competition by increasing social capital and taking into account the risks that might emerge when taking such a decision. The research brought implication in developing a robust approach by government and entrepreneurship education institutions to enhance entrepreneurship.
Creative industries, developing country, entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial performance, social capital
This paper aims to explore the use of directive speech acts in a local language in a university environment in Central Sulawesi. Pragmatics a multidiciplinary science methodology is adopted here since it focuses on things outside of the language itself. The study of pragmatics is growing and scholar of linguistics are increasingly interested in the context of language in society and its use. One dimension discussed within the field of pragmatics and linguistics is directive speech acts. In academic discourse language is used as an identifier in more ways than only a tool to communicate. The aim then is to identify aim the type of directive local language and function involved in the context of the conversation. The findings of this study can be used in pragmatics of teaching materials at universities. A pragmatic development in teaching materials based on multicultural differences taking into account concepts such as integration, ethnic and cultural differences, race, age, gender, roles, and religions are considered essential to suit the needs of teachers and students. Multicultural aspect is expected to one alternative in pragmatics based local value and socio-cultural.
Directive speech acts, local language, multicultural, teaching materials, pragmatics
Reflective thinking is an important aspect that should be developed by students because they often face problems which are not immediately able to be solved, while students are required to be able to resolve them. Students need to have the awareness to think, predict, and seek simple formulas, and then prove the truth. This research aims to describe the processes of reflective thinking of tenth-grade students in solving mathematical problems. This research is qualitative in nature. Subjects are students in the tenth-grade of MAN (Madrasah Aliyah Negeri) Ngawi in the second semester of the 2015/2016 academic year. Data were collected using task-based interviews and are analysed using Miles and Huberman's technique (1994) consisting of three activities; data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. Results showed that students with high and average initial mathematical ability were already able to apply reflective thinking processes in solving mathematical problems. The results of this research indicated that students with low initial capability in Mathematics did not use reflective thinking processes for problem solving. Therefore, teachers needed to provide scaffolding to them so that they could apply reflective thinking in solving mathematical problems.
Initial mathematical ability, problem solving, reflective thinking process
The polymer industry, which plays an important role in Indonesian manufacturing, requires a more-skilled workforce to sustain its competitiveness. Despite its importance today and the potential for future economic growth, there is no adequate information for polymer education in Indonesia. This present article provides an overview of the education in the field of polymer engineering related to the current profile of the industry. Literature research on plastics-industry-related statistics has been developed in order to give an indication of what polymer education will need to meet the future challenges in the Indonesian plastics industry. It then discusses the current practices of polymer-related curricula implemented not only at university but at vocational and training institutions. A gap analysis was performed to identify the mismatch between the current education practices and demands of the labour market. It is expected that this paper will provide an opportunity to consider expanding current courses to include programmes relevant to the polymer industry.
It is well-known that self-regulation is one of the most prominent factors that influences success in learning. Prior research suggested not only a new method in the measurement but also an intervention to develop it. The main aim of this research introduced online questionnaire and validated it. This questionnaire is part of REDI-Space, a self-regulation website. Self-regulation cannot be seen as a single variable but it correlates with other variables such as emotional support and achievement motivation. Thus, in the development of Indonesian Self-Regulation Scales for Adolescence (ISRSA), researcher determines five variables as its contents. This study focused on the validation of two scales (namely, Emotional Support and Achievement Motivation Scale self-report questionnaire) given to students at one university in their first and second year of studies. Scales consisting of 20-item and 24-item were developed for Emotional Support and Achievement Motivation, respectively. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and test-retest reliability were demonstrated to analyse the data. From a group of numbered participants (N=216), there were strong internal consistency, discriminant validity and construct validity. Further research involving other universities can enrich the data to reach a better generalisation.
Achievement motivation, college students, emotional support, REDI-Space, self-regulation
The causal model is a specific relational pattern for the cause and effect of a phenomenon in learning with a causalitic-thinking approach (CTA) (causalitic means a combination of causality and analytic). This approach is oriented to increasing the problem-solving ability (PSA) of pre-service teachers and has been implemented in two subjects: work and energy, and thermodynamics. PSA includes the ability to understand (IPSA-1), select (IPSA-2), differentiate (IPSA-3), determine (IPSA-4), apply (IPSA-5), and identify (IPSA-6). This research aimed to investigate causal models in learning Physics, which are possible to develop for increasing PSA. This research was conducted by using a mixed method of an embedded, experimental, two phase design and used a sample of 49 students, with 39 females and 10 males. The differences between pre-test and post-test, and between the PSA gain of the low (Lo) and high (Hi) groups were tested using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Results of the test on the subjects, among all pairs (24 pairs) of tcounted and ttable, showed that there are differences of 71% (for pre- and post-test) and 33% (for Lo and Hi groups) that indicated tcounted<ttable. However, from the investigation of the physics phenomena used, there are six causal models as a result of the first year of this series of research. The models are simple causal model (SCM), divergent causal model (DCM), convergent causal model (CCM), chain causal model (ChCM), simple composite causal model (SCoCM), and chain composite causal model (ChCoCM). These models are useful as references when constructing phenomena for conducting Physics learning or learning for another discipline using this approach.
The present research seeks to describe the beliefs of pre-service trainee teachers in Primary Teacher Education Programme with regard to science teaching orientation. Respondents consisted of 100 sixth (introductory-level), and 120 eight semester (advanced-level) students in a Primary Teacher Education Programme. They came from different high school backgrounds such as science, non-science, and vocational education. Beliefs towards science teaching orientation cover aspects such as specific science curriculum, knowledge of student understanding of science, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of assessment of science literacy. Data were collected with the use of a 23-item questionnaire using a 4-point Likert scale - ranging from agree to disagree. Advanced level and introductory level students had significant effects on beliefs although gender and different high school backgrounds did not differ in terms of beliefs about science teaching orientation. Therefore, results indicated the belief of pre-service teachers is an important aspect to support science teaching orientation. The pre-service teachers must master the STO component to succeed as science teachers in Primary Education Programme.
This research aimed to find out whether creative visual aids (CVAs) are able to support the effectiveness of using a student-centred learning (SCL) approach for teaching and learning science. This research was performed between 20th July and 7th August 2016 at Araullo High School, Manila, Philippines. The participants were three pre-service student teachers from Philippine Normal University; 168 students from four sections of 7th -grade science at Araullo High School, taught using CVAs; and 88 students from two sections of 7th-grade science at Araullo High School, taught using common visual aids (VAs). Four CVA sections and two VA sections were selected randomly from 31 parallel sections of 7th-grade science. Data consists of qualitative and quantitative data. Scores for the quantitative data for the 1st quarter pre-test and post-test were analysed using a descriptive statistical method. The qualitative data (observation, documentation, field notes and interviews) were verified using triangulation methods. Video recording was also used to make documents. Results of this research showed that CVAs effectively supports SCL for science.
Although CAR has been regarded beneficial for English teachers, very few research explores such issue language teaching education context. The aim of this study is to investigate four EFL senior teachers' perspective involving in CAR projects with the researcher for one semester in an Indonesian school. It investigates how the teachers' engagement in CAR impacts on their pedagogical practice, and their perception of the support from the school and the researcher. This multiple qualitative case study explores the teachers' perspectives through in-depth interview, observation, and documents. Data were analysed using inductive approach. Using cross-case analysis, themes within and across the case were compared and grouped to get the findings of the study. The results of the study show that teachers' involvement in CAR brings meaningful impact on their teaching practice and their students. Despite little support gained from the school, teachers value the external support positively from the collaborator which motivates them to participate in CAR projects. This study contributes to the insight of promoting teachers engaging in action research through a collaborative mode. It also suggests that CAR can be an impetus tool professional development for teachers which impact on their pedagogy and personal growth.
Collaborative action research, pedagogical practice, professional development, support
wayang suket is one of the nine types of wayang puppet found in the city of Surakarta, Indonesia (Wardani, 2014). wayang suket can be described as wayang puppets made of grass (suket). These grass puppets are created to represent human beings or animals. wayang suket, as a cultural product of Indonesia, is appropriate for introduction to students. Teachers, as classroom learning facilitators, can use creatively made wayang suket as a learning model, thus enabling students to better absorb the materials and character traits of the wayang suket stories. This article explains the use of an integrative-creative learning model that can be applied in Indonesian-language and culture education lessons for students in the fourth year of elementary school. This research finds that: (1) creative learning is learning planned by teachers to include a variety of activities that can meet the needs of students with varying capacities. This learning is conditioned by the teacher in a fun and entertaining atmosphere; (2) an integrative creative learning model, based on wayang suket, was implemented through lessons focusing on listening, reading, speaking, and writing. Activities included students making wayang suket and using these puppets for role-playing.
Creative integrative, elementary school students, learning models
A school principal requires adequate competencies to provide effective leadership to manage teaching and learning processes at school. This study examines the effectiveness of an inter-school collaboration on the principals' competencies in a rural area. It is believed that the inter-school collaboration has a significant impact not only on educational but also on social aspects. This study draws insights into ways to improve the competencies of the principal in school management using an action research approach. It evaluated the impact of an intervention by implementing a partnership between schools. One level A accredited school and three level B/C accredited schools in Kebumen, Central Java, Indonesia, were selected to participate in the inter-school collaboration. Within the collaboration programme, the level B/C accredited schools actively seek opportunities to improve their teaching and school management under the guidance of their counterparts from level A accredited schools. Several actions such as benchmark, workshop and training were performed during the intervention phase. The research results indicate that the partnership model optimises the competencies of principals of primary schools in Kebumen Regency, especially their managerial, entrepreneurship and supervision competencies and this has led to improvement in the competencies of teachers and school administrative personnel, as well as that of their educational service.
Competencies, educational service, inter-school collaboration, school principal
Ecological intelligence is our ability to adapt to our ecological niche. Teachers can improve students' understanding on ecological intelligence values and their ability to keep and preserve environment through learning using books. This research aims at investigating and exploring ecological intelligence values of the 2013 curriculum-based Indonesian language (BI) textbooks, comprising of B7 and B8. It was carried out in the exploratory stage with descriptive explanatory strategy and content analysis. On the basis of the results of analysis, it concludes that two analysed Indonesian language textbooks for junior high school students appear to contain ecological intelligence values. Both Indonesian Language textbooks contain eight ecological intelligence values. The ecological intelligence values in BI textbooks are found in materials or readings, exercises/assignments, or evaluation. Nonetheless, the drawbacks of the textbooks lie in the materials which still focus on the cognitive aspect instead of guiding students to do concrete actions for environmental preservation. Research results contribute to the development of ideas and concepts on the need of ecological education, and writers and teachers can use them as reference to develop teaching materials to foster ecological insight and empathy among students towards environmental preservation.
Ecological intelligence, Indonesian language, textbook, value
The purposes of this research were to: 1) study the students' reading problems in terms of reading strategies prior to the implementation of the supplementary exercises, and 2) compare the students' learning achievement in terms of reading skills and strategies before and after implementing the supplementary exercises. The research sample, selected through a purposive sampling technique, comprised 275 third-year students enrolled in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Thepsatri Rajabhat University and failed in Reading Exit Exam in the 2nd semester of 2016 Academic Year. The instruments of the study consisted of pre-and post-tests, Reading skills and strategies supplementary exercises, and structured interview. The quantitative data were analysed by means, standard deviation, percentage, and t-test whereas the content analysis was conducted to analyse the qualitative data. The study revealed that the students' reading problems were classified into two main issues: the confusion of using each reading strategy and less frequency usage. The comparison of the results before and after implementing the reading supplementary exercises showed statistically significant differences at the .01 level. Most of the students obtained better results after learning through the supplementary exercises and could employ each reading strategy with more confidence when retaking the examination.
Development, english reading skills and strategies, supplementary exercises
In response to the demand of employers, professional recruiters, or accreditation bodies, typically, higher education institutions incorporate the expected characteristics into their learning curricula. This paper reports a project addressing the lack of transferable skills identified in the curriculum of an Indonesian accountancy education programme. A research and development method was adopted in the research. The three-year-long project involved more than a thousand people participating in the identification, development, testing and dissemination of a set of transferable skills into four national higher education courses, namely Statistics, Cost Accounting, Educational Technology in Accounting Education, and Computerised Accounting. This paper contributes to the knowledge and practice by proposing a modified semester learning plan for the courses that is expected to improve the quality of the graduates. The characteristics inserted in the relevant courses include honest, responsible, obedient, confident, persistent and hard-working, proportionally and logically thinking, creative and innovative, nice and kind, and open-minded. The relevant transferable skills inserted in the courses include communicating effectively, cooperating with work groups, interacting with society, negotiating to achieve a win-win solution, respecting others, being responsible, assessing the benefits of IT use properly, leading work groups fairly and democratically, and expressing opinions in work groups.
This research aims to explain (1) religious values in Gunungan Wayang (a leather puppet shaped like a mountain) sadat (the facilities of preaching and conveyance- sarana dakwah dan tabligh), and (2) the relevance of the visual structures of Gunungan Wayang Sadat to arts and culture learning in fine art subjects in high schools based on the curriculum in 2013. The research was conducted in Mireng village, Klaten, Central Java using a qualitative descriptive approach. Research subjects were Gunungan Wayang Sadat and fine art teachers. Data were collected using interviews, literature study, and content analysis. Data source triangulation was applied to increase the data validity. The data were analysed using an interactive model of data analysis, including data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing were continuously conducted in a cycle. The research findings indicate that Gunungan Wayang Sadat implicitly and explicitly contains religious values which are in accordance with Islamic values. The religious values contained in the structures of Gunungan Wayang Sadat are highly relevant to the material of fine art learning in high schools based on character education in the curriculum during 2013.
Creation, gunungan, Islamic values, preaching of Islam, Wayang Sadat
The research aims to identify patterns of communication between teacher and students when they construct knowledge. Identification was based on the category of thinking process in the dimension of knowledge of Bloom's Taxonomy. Research was a quasi-experimental pre-post test non-equivalent control group, in which the experiment class was treated with discovery learning, and the control was taught with the conventional method. The control class consisted of 31 students and the experiment class, 28 students. Both classes learned about the reproductive system. The conversations between the teacher and students were analysed based on Bloom's categories. Research results indicate that: 1) teacher and students have a relatively simiar distribution of thinking category; 2) discovery learning changes the distribution of thinking categories of teacher and students; 3) communication between teacher and students in discovery learning is clustered in concepts and facts; and 4) recalling (C1) and understanding (C2) were more dominant during the process of learning.
School Principals' competencies could be improved through continuous professional development (CPD) programme. Such a programme for principals in Indonesia has been implemented through direct modality since 2014. However, the implementation of this programme has lacked evaluation. This research aims to (1) assess the supporting and inhibiting aspects that contribute to the programme's success, and (2) measure the effectiveness of CPD in improving the school principals' competencies. This research was a survey involving 46 school principals in three Districts of Central Java, Indonesia. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed in this research. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data, which were analysed using a descriptive quantitative method supported by data source triangulation. The research shows that (1) the training process has been implemented with appropriate components, including assessment, learning materials, and delivery modes. Nevertheless, training facilities, infrastructure, and locations are less than conducive to learning, and (2) CPD does not fully contribute to improving principals' competencies, human resource management, and quality of instruction.
Competencies, evaluation, principals, professional development
This research shows that in agrarian countries, the farmers' life pattern changes from agricultural to non-agricultural. This condition is caused by their low access to lands, which results in poverty and lost generation of the farmer. This research used the socio legal approach, which is the integration between legal research and social research. The results of research: 1) Civic agriculture is a concept, which is developed in a society, which bears agrarian potentials in which the citizens are aware of their agrarian culture identity. The concept of civic agriculture is relevant to the theory of ecological citizenship as a form of awareness to perform collective movement which is based on the bond of citizenship in an agrarian country; 2) The important thing to do is to create citizens' awareness to know more about civic agriculture; therefore, the citizens will have responsibilities and concerns in applying it in their attitudes as to implement citizens' abilities in utilising land as agrarian resource in order to preserve sustainable environment. The developed educational strategy is oriented to the adherence to the agrarian laws as to prevent the land utilization for merely personal and economic interests.