Manuscripts in general should be organised in the following order:
Page 1: Running title. (Not to exceed 60 characters, counting letters and spaces). This page should only contain the running title of your paper. The running title is an abbreviated title used as the running head on every page of the manuscript.
In addition, the Subject areas most relevant to the study must be indicated on this page. Select the appropriate subject areas from the Scope of the Journals provided in the Manuscript Submission Guide.
A list of number of black and white / colour figures and tables should also be indicated on this page. Figures submitted in color will be printed in colour. See "5. Figures & Photographs" for details.
Page 2: Author(s) and Corresponding author information. This page should contain the full title of your paper with name(s) of all the authors, institutions and corresponding author's name, institution and full address (Street address, telephone number (including extension), hand phone number, fax number and e-mail address) for editorial correspondence. The names of the authors must be abbreviated following the international naming convention. e.g. Salleh, A.B., Tan, S.G., or Sapuan, S.M.
Authors' addresses. Multiple authors with different addresses must indicate their respective addresses separately by superscript numbers:
George Swan1 and Nayan Kanwal2
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
2Office of the Deputy Vice Chancellor (R&I), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
Page 3: This page should repeat the full title of your paper with only the Abstract (the abstract should be less than 250 words for a Regular Paper and up to 100 words for a Short Communication). Keywords must also be provided on this page (Not more than eight keywords in alphabetical order).
Page 4 and subsequent pages: This page should begin with the Introduction of your article and the rest of your paper should follow from page 5 onwards.
Abbreviations. Define alphabetically, other than abbreviations that can be used without definition. Words or phrases that are abbreviated in the introduction and following text should be written out in full the first time that they appear in the text, with each abbreviated form in parenthesis. Include the common name or scientific name, or both, of animal and plant materials.
Footnotes. Current addresses of authors if different from heading
Text. Regular Papers should be prepared with the headings Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions in this order. Short Communications should be prepared according to "8. Short Communications." below.
Tables. All tables should be prepared in a form consistent with recent issues of Pertanika and should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. Explanatory material should be given in the table legends and footnotes. Each table should be prepared on a separate page. (Note that when a manuscript is accepted for publication, tables must be submitted as data - .doc, .rtf, Excel or PowerPoint file- because tables submitted as image data cannot be edited for publication.)
Equations and Formulae. These must be set up clearly and should be typed triple spaced. Numbers identifying equations should be in square brackets and placed on the right margin of the text.
Figures & Photographs. Submit an original figure or photograph. Line drawings must be clear, with high black and white contrast. Each figure or photograph should be prepared on a separate sheet and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. Appropriate sized numbers, letters and symbols should be used, no smaller than 2 mm in size after reduction to single column width (85 mm), 1.5-column width (120 mm) or full 2-column width (175 mm). Failure to comply with these specifications will require new figures and delay in publication. For electronic figures, create your figures using applications that are capable of preparing high resolution TIFF files acceptable for publication. In general, we require 300 dpi or higher resolution for coloured and half-tone artwork and 1200 dpi or higher for line drawings to be submitted in separate electronic files.
For review, you may attach low-resolution figures, which are still clear enough for reviewing, to keep the file of the manuscript under 5 MB. Illustrations may be produced at no extra cost in colour at the discretion of the Publisher.
References. Literature citations in the text should be made by name(s) of author(s) and year. For references with more than two authors, the name of the first author followed by 'et al.' should be used.
Swan and Kanwal (2014) reported that ...
The results have been interpreted (Kanwal et al. 2014).
References should be listed in alphabetical order, by the authors' last names. For the same author, or for the same set of authors, references should be arranged chronologically. If there is more than one publication in the same year for the same author(s), the letters 'a', 'b', etc., should be added to the year.
When the authors are more than 11, list 5 authors and then et al.
Do not use indentations in typing References. Use one line of space to separate each reference. The name of the journal should be written in full. For example:
Jalaludin, S. (1997a). Metabolizable energy of some local feeding stuff. Tumbuh, 1, 21-24.
Jalaludin, S. (1997b). The use of different vegetable oil in chicken ration. Malayan Agriculturist, 11, 29-31.
Tan, S.G., Omar, M.Y., Mahani, K.W., Rahani, M., & Selvaraj, O.S. (1994). Biochemical genetic studies on wild populations of three species of green leafhoppers Nephotettix from Peninsular Malaysia. Biochemical Genetics, 32, 415 - 422.
In case of citing an author(s) who has published more than one paper in the same year, the papers should be distinguished by addition of a small letter as shown above, e.g. Jalaludin (1997a); Jalaludin (1997b).
Unpublished data and personal communications should not be cited as literature citations, but given in the text in parentheses. 'In press' articles that have been accepted for publication may be cited in References. Include in the citation the journal in which the 'in press' article will appear and the publication date, if a date is available.
Examples of other reference citations:
Monographs: Turner, H.N., & Yong, S.S.Y. (2006). Quantitative Genetics in Sheep Breeding. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Chapter in Book: Kanwal, N.D.S. (1999). Role of plantation crops in Papua New Guinea economy. In Angela R. McLean (Ed.), Introduction of livestock in the Enga province PNG (p. 221-250). United Kingdom: Oxford Press.
Proceedings: Kanwal, N.D.S. (2001). Assessing the visual impact of degraded land management with landscape design software. In Kanwal, N.D.S., & Lecoustre, P. (Eds.), International forum for Urban Landscape Technologies (p. 117-127). Lullier, Geneva, Switzerland: CIRAD Press.
Short Communications should include Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions in this order. Headings should only be inserted for Materials and Methods. The abstract should be up to 100 words, as stated above. Short Communications must be 5 printed pages or less, including all references, figures and tables. References should be less than 30. A 5 page paper is usually approximately 3000 words plus four figures or tables (if each figure or table is less than 1/4 page).
*Authors should state the total number of words (including the Abstract) in the cover letter. Manuscripts that do not fulfil these criteria will be rejected as Short Communications without review.