Streptococcosis in cultured fishes has been reported to cause severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry worldwide. Lancefield group B Streptococcus agalactiae has been recognised as the main pathogen in cultured tilapia. This review discusses the current scenario and risk factors of streptococcosis in tilapia and suggests the control and prevention measures for this disease. The preventive measures focus on combined aspects of selecting farm location, applying good aquaculture farm practices, utilization of antibiotics and proper vaccination programme. A combination of all these measures will perhaps be the key to improve the health of cultured tilapia and prevent the infection by S. agalactiae, which in turn will increase the economic profit of tilapia farm operators.
Control, prevention, streptococcosis, tilapia, aquaculture, Malaysia
A selective breeding programme of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) based on a fully pedigreed population of the GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) strain has been carried out using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) method for genetic evaluation and selection. Two lines were created from the 2002 progeny; one selected based on high breeding values (selection line) and another one was selected for average breeding values (control line) for live weight (LW). The estimate of heritability for live weight at harvest was 0.24 ± 0.031, indicating that there is still abundant genetic variation and scope for further genetic improvement. The accumulated response was 107% in the latest generation of 2011, averaging 11.9% per generation. It can be concluded that although the selection programme in the nucleus of the GIFT strain in Malaysia resulted in significant improvement in harvest weight, there still exists an abundant genetic variation thus providing the scope for further enhancement in performance of this population.
Nile tilapia, GIFT strain, selective breeding, BLUP, heritability, selection response
The paper contains an empirical research approach on the demand and supply analysis for sugarcane in Bangladesh. In be more specific, how sufficient yield of sugarcane could be achieved, as well as sustained in the country, is discussed in the paper based on the analysis, along with exploring its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Bangladesh imports around 1.26 million metric ton of sugar each year to meet its national demand deficit. The research shows that local growing of sugarcane rather imports of sugar would save around BDT8,937.94 million per year. In addition, local production of sugarcane and its processing to sugar would result in the by-production of molasses, chobra and spirit/ alcohol at massive scale that might considerably contribute to the national economy. The paper, in this regard, proposes eight contiguous districts of Bangladesh with high sugarcane productivity to form a regional belt where deficit amount of sugarcane could be grown every year. In addition, several policy recommendations are made with a view to sustaining this yield of sugarcane in the country.
Fusarium are among the fungal genera that can cause contamination or spoilage on vegetable crops. Therefore, it is important to identify the occurrence of Fusarium species on these commodities as some species are plant pathogen and some other are toxigenic. In the present study, 83 Fusarium isolates were recovered from rotting tissues of nine vegetable crops, namely, cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), okra (Hibiscus esculentus), loofah (Luffa acutangula), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), moringa (Moringa olifel), brinjal (Solanum melongena), long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) and red chilli (Capsicum annuum). The species identified were F. oxysporum (22 isolates), F. semitectum (19 isolates), F. solani (19 isolates), F. proliferatum (14 isolates), F. pseudocircinatum (four isolates), F. sacchari (two isolates), F. equiseti (two isolates) and F. verticillioides (one isolate). From pathogenicity test, only 21 isolates were found to be pathogenic, causing vegetable rot on their host. The present study showed that Fusarium species are prevalent on vegetable crops and the species might be pathogenic or epiphytic .
Factors influencing the perception of landscapes have been the subject of research in the last 40 years. Indigenous and native plants are commonly restricted to informal or naturalistic designed landscapes. This research project investigates the use of native plants as a formal landscape element. As the world is becoming more urbanized (United Nations, 2010), gardens are becoming an increasingly important contributor to people’s health and well-being (Dunnett & Qasim, 2000). The research has highlighted some elements that tend to affect visual preferences. This paper discusses a study conducted to determine preferences of Malaysian landscape professionals and students in landscape architecture and horticulture on two native ornamental plants, Molineria latifolia var. megacarpa (Lemba) and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Kemunting), that are grown in soilless media with the potential for use in urban landscapes. Participants of this study comprised of landscape architects (20 respondents), architects (20), nursery owners (20), Bachelor of Horticulture students (80) (Faculty of Agriculture, UPM), and Bachelor of Landscape Architecture students (80 respondents) (Faculty of Design and Architecture, UPM), with a total of 220 respondents. Data collected were analyzed through descriptive analysis, Chi square and reliability test using SPSS. Results indicated that 88.2% of the respondents agreed that Molineria latifolia var. megacarpa (Lemba) could be a potential urban landscape plant, while 92.7% of them agreed that Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Kemunting) could be domesticated, and is therefore a potential urban landscape plant. Majority of the respondents (49% to 55%) preferred the plants grown individually, while others (40% to 49%) preferred both plants in the form of mass planting. Meanwhile, using the Likert’s Scale, about half (50% to 52%) of the amateurs and professionals of the landscape field rated 4 (Like) for both the plants, whereas 10% to 15% of them marked 5 (Extremely Like) to show their acceptance towards the two new native plants. This finding indicates bright future for the two undomesticated wild native plants to be used as urban landscape plants. Thus, it is concluded that Molineria latifolia var. megacarpa (Lemba) and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Kemunting) grown in soilless media have a high potential to become urban, native landscape plants.
The importance of domestic timber market in Malaysia is recognised with the launch of the National Timber Industry Plan in 2009, which calls for promoting and encouraging the use of timber products by the local construction industry. A study was conducted to provide information on the current use of timber products in the single-family residential building sector as it is one of the major development projects undertaken by the construction industry. In specific, the study aimed to identify the types and to estimate the amount of timber products used in the construction and those installed in the completed single-family residential building units. Data for the study were collected using a self-administered, open-ended questionnaire sent to constructions firms in Selangor and the Federal territory of Kula Lumpur advertising the sale of their residential building units in the local newspapers and the internet during the survey period. The respondents of the study were project managers or quantity surveyors who were involved directly in the supervision and monitoring of the residential projects constructed by the construction firms. The amount of sawn timber and plywood used for the construction of the residential units ranges from 0.05 to 0.07 cu. m/sq. m. and 0.01 to 0.07 cu. m./sq. m., respectively. The most common timber products installed in the completed residential units are wooden/timber doors. Other traditional timber-based products are still being used but they are continually replaced by other building materials such as aluminium, steel and glass. Efforts to promote timber products to the single-family residential building sector should target on their uses in the completed residential building units.
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs), belonging to the Aviadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae, have been classified into five species (A to E) and further divided into 12 serotypes. The objective of this study was to identify the serotype classification of five Malaysian FAdV isolates obtained from field outbreaks of IBH in commercial broiler chickens. Hexon-based polymerase chain reactions (PCR), combined with restriction enzyme analysis (REA), were applied. Viral DNA reacted positively with H1/H2 and H3/ H4 primer pairs which hybridised to highly conserved regions of the hexon genes. The restriction enzyme profiles of the H1/H2 fragment digested with HaeII and the H3/H4 fragment digested with HpaII revealed that all five isolates shared identical patterns and are characterised as being FAdV-8b, species E. Meanwhile, sequence analysis of the L1 loop region of the hexon gene revealed 98.1% identity with FAdV-8b strain 764. High bootstrap values in phylogenetic analysis supported the clustering of the Malaysian FAdV isolates into FAdV species E. The present study has provided a very useful reference for further studies of FAdVs in Malaysia. Vaccination strategies should be developed against FAdVs infection in commercial broiler chickens to prevent IBH outbreaks in the country.
The present report describes a comparative study for plant regeneration through callus morphogenesis in two different cultivars ‘CIM madhu’ and ‘CIM mithi’ of S. rebaudiana. The leaf explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with IBA (1.0-4.0 mg/l) in combination with BAP (0.2 mg/l) for callus induction. Among the various tested combinations for shoot regeneration, maximum multiplication was recorded with MS + Kn (2.0 mg/l) + NAA (0.2 mg/l) + ADS (40 mg/l). Half-strength MS medium with IBA (0.2 mg/l) + AC (100 mg/l) was the best medium for the in vitro rooting of regenerated shoots. A comparison of different hardening media was also studied between two cultivars. The micro-plantlets hardened in plastic pots filled with sand: soil: vermiculite (1:2:1), covered with transparent polythene bags took minimum time to glass house transfer with maximum survival rate. CIM-madhu showed good callus induction, proliferation and regeneration ability in comparison to CIM-mithi. In comparison, higher rooting percentage was obtained in CIM-madhu with 97 % survival rate. The ability of ‘CIM-madhu’ to induce callus and regenerate successful plantlets under these conditions suggests that this cultivar is moderately suitable for micropropagation purposes.
A proximate analysis study of local rice bran and brown rice disclosed a distinguish level of chemical compositions. Lipid, carbohydrate and ash occupy in rice bran, while fibre is a predominant component in brown rice. Both perceptible anti-cholesterol substrates were grown with locally isolated Fusarium pseudocircinatum IBRL B3-4 to obtain the best lovastatin activity via dichloromethane extraction. Evaluation of lovastatin production at different substrate thickness ranges of 0.25 to 1.5 cm in a static tray system (20x20x6 cm3) exposed the highest production at 0.5 cm level (1135.0±6.7 µg/g dry solid of lovastatin). Meanwhile, effects of physical parameters investigation interpreted that the original substrate size, 60% (v/w) moisture content and ambient local temperature of 30±2°C as the most suitable conditions to generate lovastatin at the utmost level. Meanwhile, the maximum production was synthesized at day 12th (twelfth) under solid substrate fermentation system. A significant activity increment was revealed after 60 % (v/v) moisture content had been applied into tray system. In more specific, it boosted up to 2271.7±14.4 µg/g dry solid of lovastatin.