The adverse effects of molluscicides applied for the control of the invasive apple snails, Pomacea spp., have led to the search for eco-based cultural, mechanical and biological control techniques. Therefore, a field study on the relative effectiveness of locally available and cost effective plant-based traps against Pomacea spp. was conducted. Results showed jackfruit skin (9.03 ± 0.60 / m2 and 6.03 ± 0.60 / m2) and damaged pomelo (9.00 ± 0.61 / m2 and 5.78 ± 0.74 / m2) were relatively more effective than tapioca leaves, water spinach leaves and old newspaper. Snails also displayed preference for fresh materials as compared to rotten materials. Thus, incorporating these findings in rice fields during early susceptible growth will ease the collection and destruction of snails.
The accumulation of potato virus Y- (PVY) in tissue culture of Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) was studied. Plants of N. tabacum variety, Samsun, inoculated with PVY-infected sap of potato variety, Cherie, were used for the virus accumulation. According to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results, virus showed the highest optical density (OD) on the 25th day of inoculation. Murashige and Skoog medium containing kinetin 2 mg/l, 2.4-D 0.5 mg/l, indole-acetic acid 1 mg/l sucrose 2% agar 0.7%, in addition to the standard components, was used to induce callus culture from N. tabacum leave explants. ELISA results showed that the callus culture was able to maintain viral infection during four transplantations. Slightly and highly purified (Y-Cherie) virus preparations were obtained from the PVY-infected tissue culture. The slightly-purified antigens showed an OD approximately equal to the positive control in sandwich ELISA. The Y-Cherie antigen was detected as PVY necrotic strain. Specific to the virus polyclonal antibodies that reacted with a maximum 1/3200 titer of antigen in indirect ELISA were obtained in the result of the laboratory mouse immunisation.
Arsenic (As) contaminated irrigation water (groundwater) is a threat to irrigated rice cultivation. Studies were conducted during three consecutive Boro seasons (fully dependent on irrigation) at highly As contaminated areas in Bangladesh to determine a suitable water management practice to reduce As accumulation in rice. In this study, two water management techniques were evaluated: 1) alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and continuous standing water (CSW) with surface (25 µg L-1 As); and 2) groundwater (419 µg L-1 As). A high yielding rice variety, BRRI dhan28, was grown. Results showed that the yield obtained by two management techniques were almost similar, except in CSW with groundwater application where significant yield reduction was observed. Significantly lower As content was found in the straw (77.23%) and rice grain (38.14%) of AWD with groundwater and CSW (straw 70.41% and 26.36%) with surface water application compared to CSW with ground water application. Among the water management practices, AWD with groundwater application showed similar benefit to CSW with surface water irrigation. Thus, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) with groundwater or surface water irrigation with CSW can be advocated as an appropriate agronomic practice for rice cultivated in As contaminated soils of Bangladesh.
Arsenic mitigation, water management, alternate wetting and drying, continuous standing water
Water uptake by the plant is difficult in saline and water stress condition due to decreasing osmotic potential of soil. Soybean yield is highly affected by the soil water scarcity. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield of three selected soybean genotypes in salt and water stress conditions at a vinyl house. Three soybean genotypes, namely, Galarsum, BD 2331 and BARI Soybean 6, were tested in six different treatments. The six different treatments were: T1 (Control, no salt or water stress), T2 (Water shortage, WS), T3 (50 mM NaCl), T4 (50 mM NaCl + WS), T5 (75 mM NaCl) and T6 (75 mM NaCl + WS). Plant height, shoot dry weight and dry matter distribution in different parts were sharply decreased when the plants were exposed to the combined salt and water stress conditions. The combined effect of salt and water stress was more severe in yield reduction than the single effect. The seed yield of soybean was decreased with increase in salinity. Among the genotypes, dry matter reduction was the lowest in Galarsum. In addition, Galarsum also showed the highest filled pods and 100 seed weight. The maximum seed yield was found in Galarsum. Galarsum was found to be suitable to grow in saline and water stress condition. Therefore, this genotype can be recommended for saline and water shortage zones.
Soybean, water stress, combined salinity and water stress, yield
The high priced cave edible bird's nest (EBN) has attracted unscrupulous EBN producers to adulterate EBN with lower priced house-farmed EBN due to the fact that both are almost indistinguishable by visual inspection. In the present study, major mineral contents such as calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium of both EBN types were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Three pattern recognition techniques namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to determine the influence of harvesting origins on mineral profiles. With the use of HCA and PCA, EBN samples have successfully been grouped into two distinct clusters. From the PCA score plot, principal component 1 (49.53 %) and principal component 2 (41.11%) accounted for 90.64% of the total variability. In addition, LDA presented excellent performance in discriminating and predicting membership of the two EBN sample types with classification rate of 100%.
Edible bird's nest, hierarchical cluster analysis, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, linear discriminant analysis, mineral content, principal component analysis
Most high-yielding cassava cultivars have high cyanogenic glycoside (CNglcs) content in their roots and the CNglcs content of < 50 ppm in fresh root is considered safe for consumption. The root yield and CNglcs content which are agronomic traits involving several genes and environmental interactions can be evaluated only during the harvest time. In this study, 83 breeding lines and parents were evaluated for the variation and correlation between root yield and CNglcs content with 17 agronomic traits: root weight, leaf weight, stem weight, starch content, harvest index, root number, plant type, plant height, the first branch height, cyanide-equivalent contents in root and in leaf, chlorophyll content, carotenoid contents in leaf and in root, and cassava bacterial blight, fibrous and tuberous root-knot symptom scorings that may affect root yield and CNglcs content. The multiple regression and path analysis indicated that: a) harvest index, leaf weight and stem weight, and b) stem weight, starch content, CNglcs content in leaf, the first branch height and leaf weight could produce root weight with predicted R2 = 86.03 and 47.05%, respectively. Also, a) chlorophyll content, CNglcs content in leaf, and root-knot symptom scoring, and b) carotenoid content in leaf and CNglcs content in leaf could be used in screening for low CNglcs content in root with predicted R2 = 52.20 and 55.06%, respectively. However, CNglcs content in leaf and root did not show any correlation with cassava bacterial blight and fibrous root-knot symptom scorings. Further evaluation and trial in other locations are required for the verification.
The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities (AA) of non-polar and polar extracts of germinated brown rice (GBR). Nutritional compositions such as moisture, ash, carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre were determined. Energy and minerals content were determined by using bomb calorimetry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), respectively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminium chloride colorimetric method. The AA was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and [2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assay, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total energy content of GBR sample was 390.95±11.31 kcal/100g and carbohydrate (54.30±1.04 g/100 g) was the most abundant nutrient. The predominant minerals in the GBR sample were sodium, potassium and magnesium. The polar extract showed significantly higher (p<0.05) level in TPC, TFC and AA than non-polar extract except in β-carotene bleaching assay. Positive and strong correlations (r>0.90, p<0.001) existed between antioxidants (TPC and TFC) and AA. Therefore, polar extract was better than non-polar extract. The nutritional composition of GBR also provided an update for food composition database.
Nutritional composition, antioxidant activities, germinated brown rice
High pH soil accounts for more that 30 percent of world's soils and poses problems to plant nutrient availability. As a cheap and readily available source of soil acidulates, elemental sulphur may be a useful material for alleviating some alkaline soil problems. To elucidate the role of elemental sulphur as a soil amendment for plant production in a high pH soil, maize plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 45 days after 0, 20 and 40 days of soil incubation at different rates of elemental sulphur (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 g S kg-1 of soil). Soils were sampled two times (before and after planting) and subjected to soil pH and available P determination. The results showed with each unit increase in S rate, soil pH decreases by 1.52 units. In addition, while sulphur application increased available P before planting, it failed to increase P supply to maize at harvest. Supporting the role of elemental S on soil P availability, with increasing S application rate the P concentration in maize root, stem and leaves was successively decreased. This relationship can be explained by the dilution of P in increasing leaf biomass and the similar concomitant increase of both zinc and manganese nutrient concentrations with increasing sulphur application rate. Overall, soil acidification by elemental sulphur application resulted in P reduction in soil labile pools and intensified P deficiency in maize..
Our detailed study on the phytochemistry of the stem bark of Calophyllum depressinervosum resulted in the isolation of four xanthones and one coumarin. The xanthones are trapezifolixanthone (1), macluraxanthone (2), ananixanthone (3), caloxanthone C (4) and the coumarin calonolide E2 (5). The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic analysis such as 1D and 2D-NMR, GCMS, IR and UV .
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC). It is a disease recognised by OIE that needs to be controlled or eradicated through surveillance system. This study establishes the sero-prevalence of CBPP, as well as attempts to isolate and identify the agent of CBPP from cattle in Kelantan and Terengganu, the northeastern states of Peninsular Malaysia, where cattle movement was high. A total of 3,242 sera from 428 farms were processed between 2011 and 2014 using the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA). The animal-level prevalence ranged between 5% (46/917) in Terengganu and 9% (220/2325) in Kelantan, whereas the herd prevalence ranged between 12% (22/210) in Terengganu and 24% (53/218) in Kelantan. The overall animal-level prevalence was 8% (266/3242), while the herd prevalence was 17% (75/428). Two hundred and four nasal swabs from 18 positive herds in Kelantan and 163 lung and mediastinal lymph node samples were processed for isolation of MmmSc before confirmation by PCR and immunoperoxidase. Forty-one samples showed turbidity in PPLO broth and 15 lung and mediastinal lymph node samples had 'fried-egg colony' growth on the PPLO agar, which were suggestive of Mycoplasma infection. However, all were negative for MmmSC by PCR and immunoperoxidase. Thus, the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia remains positive serology for CBPP without isolation.