Copper is a significant trace element necessary for the normal growth and metabolism of living organisms. However, this element may become very dangerous if used beyond its limit, turning into continuous metal compounds with the ability to accumulate in water and cause imbalance to the biological system. Aquaculture activities can also be affected due to the increase in environmental pollution. Copper is observed with the ability to cause some deleterious effects on fish by its toxicity, which can be evaluated from the molecular and structural level of the organism. This is because fish is one of the aquatic organisms that are able to accumulate heavy metals in their tissue. Generally, this accumulation is influenced by several factors namely, metal concentration, time of exposure, ways of metal uptake, environmental condition (water temperature, pH) and intrinsic factors (fish age, size). Different organs of fish show different affinity to copper accumulation. Therefore, this review was conducted with the purpose of investigating the harmful effects of copper on fish as a result of the accumulation of copper in fish organs and the histopathological alteration encountered in fish.
Mammary gland tumours are the most common neoplasia diagnosed in the female dog. These tumours occur spontaneously or naturally as in humans, 50% of which are commonly diagnosed as malignant. Metastasis to other tissues especially the lung is a common cause of death in these dogs. Treatment of canine mammary gland tumours (CMT) involves mainly surgical resection with wide margin followed by chemotherapy with cytotoxic drugs for those with lymph node and distant metastasis. With the dog continuously described as a very suitable and valuable large animal model of human breast cancer, it becomes very obvious that CMT can be a model to further understand the biology of cancer as well as screening for new therapeutic agents that could be used to treat human breast cancer and CMT more effectively. This review focuses on research work that has been done on CMT over the past years, describing the epidemiology, diagnostics and recent advances in therapy for CMT as well as discussing the significance of the dog CMT as spontaneous animal model for human breast cancer.
Cancer biology, dog model, histopathology, human breast cancer, mammary tumours
Water wise rice production is now a primary concern that ensures saving of considerable amount of fresh water volume as well overcoming water shortage for rice production. Several potential types of research have revealed that low water input for rice cultivation increases the productivity of water and sustains the production of rice. Several other studies have also proven the effects of water levels on the yield and yield parameters of rice plants. However, it is still necessary to update current scientific findings on low water use rice production which is related with the changes of plant and soil parameters. To date, it has been established that low water use in rice cultivation does not affect rice yield and rice parameters but saves voluminous amount of fresh water and reduces greenhouse gas emission. This review demonstrates different aspects of water use for rice cultivation and offers current updates on the changes of plant parameters and soil chemical properties. Finally, this review confirms that reducing water input from a traditional practice to water-wise rice cultivation sustains rice production without affecting plant and soil parameters.
Adenium obesum is a common plant found in many households in Malaysia. Its phytochemical constituents are believed to have contributed to its vast medicinal properties. Five types of compounds were isolated and identified from the plant, namely cardiac glycosides, pregnanes, triterpenes, flavonoids and carbohydrates. These compounds confer the plant its reported pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulation and antiparasitic effects. The plant's antibacterial effects against some bacterial strains such as Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated while its antiviral activity was tested against H1N1. Its anticancer activity was found to be mediated through the hedgehog/GLI signalling pathway. For the immunomodulatory effect, A. obesum was found to promote proliferation of B and T cells. This review outlines in detail the pharmacological activities of A. obesum while further correlating these activities with the phytochemical constituents present.
A few studies on the presence of microbes and their association in sea cucumbers can be found to date, especially in Apostichopus japonicus. However, such studies on Malaysian sea cucumbers and in the gastrointestines of the echinoderms are still lacking. Therefore, the aims of this study are to isolate and identify associated bacteria in the gastrointestines of two common species of Malaysian sea cucumbers i.e. Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), the most dominant sea cucumber species in Malaysia, and Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, the commercial gamat species. A number of six genera of Gram-positive bacteria representing the order Bacillales and the order Micrococcales i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Dermacoccus and Micrococcus are isolated from the gastrointestines of H. leucospilota, as suggested by the phylogenetic trees of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Meanwhile, three genera of Gram-positive bacteria that represent the order Bacillales i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus and Lysinibacillus are isolated from the gastrointestines of S. horrens. Interestingly, 60% of the bacterial species have been known to contain commercial potentials mainly as antibiotic producers, and only bacteria with commercial potentials were present in the gastrointestines of S. horrens. In contrast to that, bacteria that could be pathogenic were also present in the gastrointestines of H. leucospilota. The presence of all bacteria that have been known to contain commercial potentials in the gastrointestines of S. horrens and more diverse microbial population in H. leucospilota could be due to the higher level of antimicrobial properties in the gastrointestines of S. horrens. However, experiments on antibacterial properties of the isolates have to be done and those proven to contain commercial potential can be exploited towards the development of industrial applications in Malaysia.
Arbutin is a skin-lightening agent that was discovered in berry fruit plants such as bearberry. The Mao tree produces the Mao fruit, which is quite similar to berries. The hypothesis of this research is based on the possibility of the discovery of arbutin in different parts of the Mao tree (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.). The purpose of this research was to determine the presence of arbutin in the unripe fruits (green Mao fruits, GMF), ripe fruits (red Mao fruits, RMF), mature fruits (black Mao fruits, BMF), young Mao leaves (YML) and mature Mao leaves (MML). The arbutin in the samples was isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that MML contained the greatest amount of arbutin (10.6 mg/100 g of raw material). The arbutin in MML was isolated using solid phase extraction (SPE) and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and was characterised via ESI-MS. The results of MS confirmed the presence of arbutin in the PTLC extract of MML. The crude and PTLC extracts of MML were tested for inhibitory activity against tyrosinase compared with the arbutin standard. The tyrosinase inhibition activities suggested that IC50 of the crude extract of MML (IC50 = 7.703 mg/l) and PTLC extract of MML (IC50 =9.428 mg/l) were more effective than the arbutin standard (IC50 = 14.012 mg/l).
Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell Arg., arbutin, Mao fruit analysis, Mao leaf analysis, tyrosinase inhibitor
Rice productivity can be increased by improving land productivity with a ratoon crop of salibu system cultivated with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method. Rice cultivation using SRI is a method to increase the rice growth and development by managing the plants, soil, water and nutrients. Ratooning is the ability of the rice plant to regenerate new tillers after harvest. The beneficial aspects of ratoon are the increase of rice productivity and efficiency in terms of time, labour and cost. The local people of West Sumatra commonly re-cut the rice stalk at seven days after the main crop harvest. This method is called the salibu system, which is a modification of a ratooned crop that produces a higher yield than the non-salibu system (no cutting after first harvesting). The aims of this study are to analyse the physiological characteristics of ratooned rice and its agronomic performance under the salibu system using the SRI method. The Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for the main crop to compare SRI and conventional methods, while RCBD with the factors of cutting technique and cultivation methods was used for the ratooned crop. The cultivation methods were SRI and the conventional methods, while the cutting technique was the salibu vs the usual (non-salibu) systems. The results indicate that the main crop under SRI was found to have a greater photosynthetic rate and higher vegetative and reproductive parameters than plants cultivated under the conventional method. The above trends were also observed in the ratooned crop for SRI using the salibu sytem compared with other combinations of cutting and cultivation methods. There was no interaction between cutting technique and cultivation method in the ratooned crop. The main crop yield using SRI was 24% higher than using the conventional method. Subsequently, the ratoon-crop yield under the salibu system using SRI was approximately 50% of the main crop. The ability of rice plants to produce a ratoon crop was highly influenced by their carbohydrate content and the phytohormones that remain in the intercalary meristem tissues of stubble after harvest. Furtheremore, better yield of the ratooned crop is possible by increasing fertilisers (especially nitrogen), as could be done in future research into ways of improving this innovation.
An experiment was conducted at Bukit Perawas Ayer Lanas, Jeli Kelantan from December 2014 to April 2015 to study the effect of different rates of foliar fertiliser at vegetative stage for banana cultivation. Four levels of foliar fertiliser (0 ml L-1 [control], 1 ml L-1, 2 ml L-1 and 3 ml L-1) were applied monthly throughout the experimental period. Inorganic foliar fertiliser formulation HI-NKTM, a product of ACM Sdn. Bhd, was used. It consisted of 16:8:16 of NPK and a few trace elements Fe, Mn, Mo, Cu, Zn, B and Mo. Data on growth parameters such as pseudostem height, pseudostem girth and leaf area were recorded for the first 16 weeks of planting. A logistic growth model was used to predict the response of the banana plant to foliar fertiliser (from the 16th week to the 24th week of planting). The highest vegetative growth (pseudostem height, pseudostem girth and leaf area) was yielded by the treatment that used foliar fertiliser was applied at 1 ml L-1. The earliest results of plant growth response for treatment A, B and C could be seen in the second week of planting. The treatments followed the logistic growth curve in R2 ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. The pseudostem height, pseudostem girth and leaf area of the banana plants applied with 1 ml L-1 at the 16th week of planting were 59.87 cm, 20.53 cm and 1718.28 cm2, respectively. The prediction showed the maximum pseudostem height, pseudostem girth and leaf area at the 24th week of planting at the rate of 1 ml L-1 were 59.3 cm, 19.91 cm and 1785.17 cm2, respectively.
The effect of superheated steam heating on the antioxidant properties of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa L.) compared to conventional hot air heating was investigated. A superheated steam oven was used in both methods using superheated steam mode and convection mode (hot air). It was operating at three different durations of 10, 20 and 30 min at 180 Â°C. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activities were 15.04 mg GAE /g, 0.81 mg QE /g and 81.28% at 180Â°C for 30 min, respectively during superheated steaming. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and DPPH radical-scavenging activities of black cumin seed increased significantly (p<0.05) when the time of heating was increased from 0 to 30 min for both treatments. The raw seed had the lowest antioxidant properties, which were TPC of 5.17 mg (GAE)/g, TFC of 0.29 mg (QE)/g and 61.27% radical scavenging activities. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activities of black cumin seed. The black cumin seed heated under superheated steam had significantly (p<0.05) higher TPC, TFC and DPPH radical scavenging activities compared with conventional hot air heating at almost all the heating times. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that superheated steam can be used as an alternative method for roasting black cumin seed that yet maintains higher antioxidant properties.
Black cumin seed, DPPH radical-scavenging, superheated steam, total flavonoid content, total phenolic content
Scurrula ferruginea is widely distributed in Southeast Asian countries and has commonly been used as a medicinal plant to treat many diseases caused by microbes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of using various solvents extractions on S. ferruginea leaves and their antimicrobial activities. Oven dried (60Â°C) leaves of S. ferruginea were extracted with aqueous and organic solvents. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus S261, Escherichia coli E57, Candida albicans C205 and Trichophyton rubrum T62 using Disc Diffusion Method, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) respectively. The ideal solvent was 80% methanol with values of the zone of inhibition ranging from 7.98 to 9.71 mm and 450 to 900Î¼g/mL (MIC and MBC) for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The present findings revealed that the leaves of S. ferruginea have inhibitory effects on several pathogenic microbes and can be suggested as a potential source of natural antimicrobial compounds.
The process of composting supports biological methods and management practices, such as vermicomposting and microbial inoculation, to enhance soil quality using biodegradable materials. However, the use of manure from animals poses potential risk for soil-transmitted helminths (STH) contamination. This study is aimed to determine the influence of various composting methods on the concentration of artificially-inoculated Ascaris suum eggs. There were three treatments (vermicomposting, composting with lactic acid bacteria, sun dry-composting) and a control (composting alone) which were artificially inoculated with A. suum eggs. Composting was done for a period of 31 days. A. suum percent recovery was determined on the 10th and 31st day of the composting process. Results revealed no significant differences in the percent recovery of A. suum in the various composting methods (p>0.05). Meanwhile, on the 31st day, the control (11.09%Â±6.40) and sundry-composting (9.03%Â±3.04) showed the highest percent recovery, followed by composting with lactic acid bacteria (7.62%Â±4.41). No A. suum eggs were recovered for vermicomposting on the 31st day. However, statistical analysis revealed no significant difference among treatments and control (p>0.05). Nevertheless, the present results suggest that the various methods of composting showed a 93.07% mean reduction of A. suum egg concentration in the organic fertilizers produced, and that composting rendered mechanical damage to eggs leading to reduced viability. Nevertheless, the presence of some fertilised eggs that could develop into infective embryonated eggs could still be a potential threat of viable eggs contaminating the organic fertilisers.
A variety of microorganisms generate highly potent surface-active bio-molecules or biosurfactants, which vary in their chemical properties and molecular size. In the present study, bioremediation effect of Pseudomonas fluorescence RE1 (GenBank: MF102882.1) and RE17 (GenBank: MF103672.1) endophytes on heavy metals Zn, Cr, Cd, and Ni were investigated. A total of 56 morphologically distinct isolates from indigenous rice roots were selected and subsequently characterised genotypically by using 16S rRNA sequencing approach. Next, biosurfactant production and heavy metal removal ability by the isolates were screened on the basis of Î± and Î² hemolysis on blood agar plates, BATH assay, and CTAB method. Analysis of bioremediation of heavy metals was done by using atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Bioremediation analysis revealed that isolates RE1 and RE17 reduced the concentration of Zn by up to 92% and 90% at pH 7.5, respectively, while for Ni, % removal was the same for both strains at 95% at pH 7.5. Biosorption results for Cr and Cd showed highest metal removal efficiency by Pseudomonas fluorescence RE17 at pH 8, 92% and 98%, respectively. Both isolates showed significant metal removal efficiency at 32Â±1Â°C for all experimental heavy metals. The present study suggests that all endophytes withstand at high concentration of testing heavy metals and can be used for bioremediation of heavy metals in contaminated environments.
A factorial experiment was carried out through a completely randomised design with four replications in the Rice Research Institute of Iran, Deputy of Mazandaran (Amol), in 2012 in order to study the effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and yield components of rice (Oryza Sativa L.).Treatments of this pot study included three factors; factor A - Ppeudomonas in four levels of control (no bacteria), P. putida-1, P. putida-2 and P. fluorescens (0,3,3 and 3 g, respectively), Factor B - azotobacter chroococcum in two levels: no aotobacter and azotobacter chroococcum (0 and 3 g, respectively), and factor C: nitrogen fertiliser from urea in four levels of 0, 80, 140 and 200 mg N/kg soil in two stages. The experiment was conducted in pot culture and open air environment. Different parameters were studied that included fertile tillers number, shoot dry weight, harvest index, flag leaf chlorophyll content, grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration. According to the analysis results of data variance, all traits except chlorophyll content had significant difference at P<0.01 level in the interaction of three factors of pseudomonas, azotobacter and nitrogen fertiliser level. The highest mean of flag leaf chlorophyll content was observed in treatment of pseudomonas putida-1 in 200 mg nitrogen fertiliser per kg soil of pot (43.48 SPAD number). The highest mean of grain yield was seen in treatment of pseudomonas putida-1 and azotobacter in 200 mg nitrogen fertiliser per kg soil of pot (104.1 g/pot).
Azotobacter and nitrogenous fertiliser, PGPR, pseudomonas, rice
In this study, 24 Saanen lactating does raised by a smallholder in Kemahang, Tanah Merah, Kelantan were randomly assigned to four groups with six goats in each group. The trial included evaluation of four dietary treatments, that is, T1: control group fed on basal diet only, which consisted of 3 kg Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 1 kg commercial goat pellet. Animals in T2, T3 and T4 received equal amounts of basal diet with supplementation of urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB), medicated urea molasses multi-nutrient block (MUMB) and commercial mineral block (CMB) respectively. The total dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) in T2 (1.28) and T3 (1.24) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in T1 (1.14) and T4 (1.15). However, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between treatments on average daily gain (ADG) and body measurements. Highest ADG (g/d) were recorded in T2 (53.57) followed by T3 (45.63), T4 (39.68) and T1 (37.70). Similar trend was also recorded in body condition score (BCS) but there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between treatments. At the end of the 90 days of feeding trial, both T2 and T3 showed acceptable BCS, that is, at 3.25 and 3.08 respectively, while low BCS were recorded in T1 (2.63) and T4 (2.71). There was significant difference (p<0.05) between treatments on feed conversion ratio (FCR) which were at 0.84, 0.95, 1.20 and 1.46 for T2, T3, T4 and T1 respectively. Both UMMB and MUMB were effective in enhancing appetite, DMI and ADG of the dairy goats, apart from minimising weight loss during lactation.
Commercial mineral block, feed conversion ratio, lactating goats, MUMB, UMMB
Arable lands are facing serious water scarcity due to climate change and available resources are depleting at an alarming rate which necessitate efficient use of water for agriculture. Deficit irrigation is an on farm strategy which is widely used in many crops to maximise crop productivity in drought prone areas. The present study was initiated to assess the effect of deficit irrigation at different growth stages of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) on yield and fruit quality traits under greenhouse condition. Four regimes of irrigation: (T1) regular watering to field capacity (as control), (T2) irrigation every four days during vegetative stage, (T3) irrigation every four days throughout flowering stage and (T4) irrigation every four days during fruiting stage were evaluated in this study. The experiment was set up in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Data were collected from three fruit maturity stages: M3 (stage three, matured green), M4 (stage four, pink) and M6 (stage six, red) for yield, fruit weight, fruit number and the fruit quality parameters viz, firmness, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and lycopene content. The results showed variable effects of deficit irrigation on most parameters studied. Soluble solids concentration were significantly increased under deficit irrigation at the flowering stage and increased from 5.25 brix (control) to 7.7 brix (fruiting) at stage three maturity index. The pH increased from 3.83 (control) to 3.97 (flowering) and 3.94 (fruiting) when fruits were harvested at stage three maturity index. In addition, the highest fruit firmness (3.4 N) was observed when fruit was harvested at stage three maturity under deficit irrigation (vegetative growth stage). Furthermore, lycopene content increased from 62.06 mg/kg in control plants to 67.91 mg/kg in plants which subjected to DI (vegetative) at stage six maturity index. However, water stress had no significant effect on titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit weight. From the observations of this study, it can be concluded that T3 and T4 were adequately appropriate DI practices for MT1 tomato plants that could be recommended to tomato growers as deficit irrigation strategy for higher yield and quality.
Deficit irrigation, fruit quality, growth stages, tomato, yield
Phytochemical study on the stem bark of Calophyllum andersonii has resulted in the isolation of five xanthones, namely (1) caloxanthone I, (2) pyranojacareubin, (3) macluraxanthone, (4) caloxanthone C, and (5) euxanthone. In this study, the compounds were subjected to various spectroscopic analyses including FT-IR, GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR for structural elucidations. Furthermore, these xanthones were obtained for the first time from Calophyllum andersonii, a plant never reported before. All four extracts, namely hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the plant showed moderate inhibitions against Bacillus subtilis.
The effects of varying maternal dietary energy and protein levels on the embryonic development of FUNAAB â€“ alpha chickens were studied. Maternal diets were as follows: standard exotic layer diet (2600 Kcal/kg and 16%CP; Control), high energy low protein (2800 Kcal/kg and 14%CP; HELP), high energy high protein (2800Kcal/kg and 18%CP; HEHP) and low energy high protein (2400 Kcal/kg and 18%CP; LEHP). A total of 420 fertile eggs were collected and labelled according to maternal dietary treatments. Eggs (n=87) were broken out on days 6, 10, 15, 18 and 19 of incubation to ascertain the level of embryonic development. Embryo weight, length, percentage of weight change (PEWC) and relative embryonic weight (REW) were recorded for each embryo. A significant (p<0.01) influence of maternal diet on the embryonic weight was observed on all the days studied. The LEHP diet consistently maintained lower PEWC. The HEHP group supported better (p<0.05) relative embryonic weight (REW). By the 19th day, LEHP embryos were shorter (p<0.001) than those of the other groups. It was concluded that maternal dietary energy and protein levels influence the embryonic development of the FUNAAB â€“ alpha chicken and that the diet of combinations control or HEHP maintain good developmental trajectory of embryos.
This paper attempts to provide findings of an investigative study on the baseline status of the pork quality in Malaysia. With consumer preferences changing towards the selection of good quality meat for consumption, there is a need to establish an investigative reference for the operators in the industry to gauge the performance of their animals and pork quality. This is also important to increase the competitiveness among producers to continuously improve the pork quality available to consumers. In this study, 30 commercial three-way crossed female pigs were randomly selected from government accredited abattoirs from east and west Malaysia and longisimus dorsi were collected for the determination of pH, drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and colour. All animals were screened for the RYR1 gene and the results were then compiled with statistical analysis to obtain an investigative baseline pork quality data in Malaysia. The average pork quality obtained from this study falls within the category of Red, Soft and Exudative (RSE), with an average ultimate pH of 5.83, drip loss more than 5% and L* values at 45.94. We have proposed an investigative baseline meat quality data for Malaysian pork from the average commercial pork quality data obtained. The proposed investigative pork quality baseline data in Malaysian is comparable in terms of studies done in other established countries and/or with international standards and falls within the RSE category of acceptable quality. It provides an investigative benchmark for researchers and end-producers to judge the quality of pork in an objective manner, both for consumption and for export purpose. Moreover, continuous selection against the RYR1 gene has successfully removed the gene from the sample size above, but constant random monitoring is still advisable if farms aim to ensure the elimination of this gene from their herd.
The development and use of a soil water model to predict the soil water flow and content under oil palm would be useful as a tool for more effective oil palm water management. Although many soil water models exist, none of them has been specifically developed, applied, and validated for oil palm. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to develop and validate such a model. Water flow was modelled following a one-dimensional "tipping bucket" system, and the soil profile was divided into several soil layers where the soil water and hydraulic characteristics for each layer were estimated based on the soil carbon content and soil texture. Darcy's law was applied to estimate the various soil water fluxes. The soil water model included algorithms to estimate the root water uptake and water stress response by oil palm. Raw data of measured soil water content for several soil depths (up to 90 cm) from two studies (Moraidi et al., 2015; Nur Farahin, 2013) were obtained, so that the accuracy of the soil water model could be validated by comparing simulations of soil water content with measured values. The model was satisfactorily accurate, showing similar daily trend as that observed for the measured soil water content. Goodness-of-fit indexes further indicated that the model simulations showed little to no overall model bias and with an average absolute prediction error of only 10%. Future work is to increase model accuracy by estimating the daily actual evapotranspiration instead as assumed constant in this study.
Darcy's law, model, oil palm, soil moisture, water flow
A study on floral biology of black pepper cultivars that cover anther dehiscence, pollen viability and stigma receptivity was carried out with the aim to improve the efficiency of intervarietal hybridisation in black pepper breeding work. In this study, 10 black pepper cultivars were used, namely 'Semongok Aman', 'Kuching', 'Semongok Emas', 'Semongok Perak', 'Semongok 1', 'Nyerigai', 'India', 'Lampung Daun Lebar', 'Sarikei' and 'Yong Petai'. The results show that anthesis in the 10 black pepper cultivars occurred between 10.25 pm and 10.50 pm. In the pollen viability study, results suggest that pollen are more viable between five and 10 hours after anther dehisced. However, there are variations among the cultivars for the optimum viable stage. For stigma receptivity, the results show that stigmas at Stage 2 (elongation and spreading of stigmata) and Stage 3 (complete emergence and wide spreading of stigmata) had better receptivity than Stage 1 (first appearance of stigmata). There was no difference in stigma receptivity stages among the 10 cultivars. This study thus, shows the most suitable time for intervarietal hybridisation via artificial pollination.
Anther dehiscence, black pepper cultivars, pollen viability, stigma receptivity
The effect of drought on crops is very significant and will affect world food supply due to climate change. Gene action, general combining ability (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability of 66 single cross hybrids of extra early maize derived using the diallel mating design involving 12 parents were evaluated under drought conditions. The design of the experiment was a 10 Ã— 7 randomised incomplete block design with two replications. The mean squares of GCA were larger than those of SCA for the observed traits except for grain yield. The relative importance of GCA over SCA was observed to be close to unity for some of the observed traits. The correlation between yield and plant aspect, anthesis silking interval, ear aspect and stay green characteristics (SG) was negative and significant. Selection for genotype with low values in these traits will lead to indirect selection for high yielding genotypes. The inbred TZdEEI 11 and a hybrid, TZdEEI 1 Ã— TZEEI 58, which had highly significant positive GCAs for grain yield and negative GCAs for SG, were identified as a good inbred line tester and single cross tester, respectively. From the study, the inheritance of genes was an additive effect, therefore, the prediction of performance of hybrids for the traits observed under drought conditions can be done using only GCA except for grain yield.
Diallel, drought, extra early maize, GCA, grain yield, SCA
The use of resistant varieties is one of the best ways to control whitefly attacks. However, to date, there is no soybean variety that is resistant to whitefly. In this study, we aimed to assess the resistance of four soybean genotypes to whitefly. Anjasmoro variety was planted as a susceptible control while G100H was used as resistant control. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using a free-choice test. All soybean genotypes were planted in polybags and arranged in a randomised completely block design with three replicates. Resistance is categorised based on the intensity of leaf damage which occurred at 45-days-old plant. The leaf damage intensity was scored using two different methods. The results showed the intensity of leaf damage by using the first method varied between 7.43% (Dena 1) and 23.93% (Anjasmoro); while that of the second method ranged between 18.03% (G100H) and 37.85% (Anjasmoro). Anjasmoro was consistently classified as highly susceptible, while Gema was consistently categorised as moderately resistant to whitefly. Dena 1 and G100H were classified as moderately resistant - resistant, while Dega 1 and Devon 1 were categorised as susceptible - moderately resistant to whitefly. Resistance of soybean genotypes tested against whitefly correlated with the density of leaf trichomes. Correlation analysis shows a negative correlation between the intensity of leaf damage and the number of leaf trichomes (r = -0.29, p = 0.24) based on method 1, thus indicating a low antixenosis mechanism in whitefly resistant genotypes.
Antixenosis mechanism, intensity of leaf damage, leaf trichomes, soybean, whitefly
The benefit of charcoal for growing crops has been well established. In a tropical sub-optimal soil, however, use charcoal only may not provide sufficient nutrient to crops. Therefore, adding compost with charcoal is expected to not only provide nutrition also improve soil biology and chemical properties. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of Compost+Charcoal (CC) on soil properties and their effect on plant top biomass of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The treatments were maize and cowpea grown on a) soil only, and b) treated with CC only. In order to estimate the N balances in the plant-soil system, main parameters were measured, namely the amount of nitrogen (N) from soil mineralisation, leached N and N uptake. The results showed that the use of CC caused the net N balance in the plant-soil system to decrease. The negative N balance may be due to N loss via denitrification resulting from higher water holding capacity of the soil treated with CC than soil only. The N loss due to denitrification might be minimised by managing the watering system when charcoal is present in the soil. It was also found that CC application only significantly increased dry matter yield and N uptake of maize, but, it did not have the same result with cowpea. The effect of CC in decreasing the leaching of N was only noticed in the early growth of maize and cowpea. However, the significant decrease of N leaching was affected by maize and cowpea.
Charcoal+compost, nitrogen, plant soil system, leaching, maize and cowpea, water holding capacity
This study was aimed at finding the highest yielding variety and its best growing technology among selected superior mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) varieties grown on a dryland. The assessment was done based on four field experiments conducted at Gumantar village, sub-district of Kayangan, and North Lombok. The soil was categorised as poor (low fertility) with 0.46% organic matter, 0.05% total nitrogen (N) (Kejdhal), 11.25 ppm available phosphate (P) (Olsen) and exchangeable potassium (K) 0.77 me%. Mungbean varieties of Kenari and Betet coupled with fertiliser rate, population density and time of weeding were the objects of assessment. The experiments focused on variety and fertiliser rate, population density and fertiliser rate, variety and population density, and time of weeding to study their effects on yield of mungbean. The results show the highest yielding variety was Kenari with yield ranging from 876 to 1,215 g/5 m2 (1.75 to 2.43-ton ha-1), followed by Betet, from 880 to 949 g/5 m2 (1.76 to 1.90 ton/ha). The optimum population density was at 500,000 plants ha-1 with fertiliser (NPK Phonska, 15-15-15) rate of 200 kg ha-1. It was found the weeding time improved yield and the best time for weeding was 49 Days After Sowing (DAS). It appears that Kenari is the most suitable variety to be grown in North Lombok at population density of 500,000 plants ha-1 fertilised with Phonska at rate of 200 kg ha-1 and weeding at 49 DAS.
Fertiliser, low soil fertility, population density, weeding, yield
Study of regeneration from different tissues or organs of plants is important as it gives information on how a piece of a plant can transform into its whole form. This process is even substantial when we talk about genetic engineering in plants, since no genetic engineering is valuable without knowing first the standard protocol for regenerating the transformed tissue or organs to become a whole plant. This experiment used hypocotyl and cotyledon of tomato cv. Tymoti as the explants was used to study how different concentrations (1.5-3 ppm) of cytokinins (Kinetin (Kin), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), thidiazuron (TDZ) and Zeatin (Zn)) affect its growth. As many as 16 explants were used for each treatment. The growth of both explants in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media + vitamins showed that Zn and TDZ were superior among the other treatments in inducing calli and primordia organ.
Cotyledon, cytokinins, hypocotyls, in vitro growth, tissue regeneration
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding phytase enzyme in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and survival rate in fingerlings of P. hypothalamus. Fingerlings of P. hypothalamus with the average weight 1.81 Â± 0.06 g per fingerling, used in this study were obtained from Muntilan, Central Java. An experimental randomised complete design was used with 5 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments were A (0 FTU kgâ€“1 diet, B (150 FTU kgâ€“1 diet), C (300 FTU kgâ€“1 diet), D (450 FTU kgâ€“1 diet), and E (600 FTU kgâ€“1 diet). The parameters to be determined include specific growth rate (SGR), efficiency of feed utilisation (EFU), protein efficiency ratio (PER), apparent digestibility coefficient protein (ADCP), apparent digestibility coefficient phosphor (ADCF), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The experimental results significantly (P<0.01) affected SGR, EFU, PER, ADCP and ADCF. On the other hand, the had insignificant (P>0.05) effect on SR of P. hypothalamus fingerlings. Based on the results, it is concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme in terms of SGR, EFU, PER, ADCP and ADCF in the catfish (P. hypothalamus) are 324, 314, 300, 300 and 300 FTU kgâ€“1 diet respectively.
Catfish, nutrient digestibility, P. hypothalamus fingerlings, phytase enzyme, specific growth, survival rate
Blue swimming Crab (Portunus pelagicus) is found in large numbers in the Betahwalang waters, and they are mainly caught using traps. Betahwalang fishing communities have realised the importance of preserving this commodity of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) by enlarging crab conservation zone in the territorial waters of betahwalang. However, many fishermen catch blue swimming crab and sell them. The capture of small crab egg-laying females cannot be avoided because the mouth traps folding reaches 29 cm. Modifications are made to reduce the capture of spawn female crabs by changing the shape of the mouth traps from a rectangular into a circular shape with a certain diameter. This research uses an experimental fishing method. Data is analysed using SPSS 16.0. The results indicate catching Blue Swimming Crabs using modified funnel and different baits (pony fish essence) is effective in landing a big catch. The catch was relatively bigger. This research also shows a positive link between modified trap and use of different baits to catch Blue Swimming Crabs.
The purpose of this research is to determine the growth pattern of Barb (Barbodes balleroides) in the Jatigede reservoir, Sumedang regency Province of West Java at the period of inundation. The research was conducted using the survey method in April and June 2016. Fish identification, and data analysis was performed at Laboratory of Aquatic Resource Management Padjadjaran University. Data analysis included: size distribution, the length and weight relationship, and the condition factor using the method of Fisheries Biology. The largest groups of Barb were caught in April (sized 128-145 mm and 146-163 mm, 25% each) and June (sized 146-160 mm, 53%). Barb growth pattern in April follow the regression equation of y = 2,8753x â€“ 4,5568 b = 2,8753, W= 3.10-5. L2,8753, whereas in June y = 2,8105x â€“ 4,3927, b = 2.8105, W= 4.10-5. L2,8105. The pattern of growth was allometrically negative, indicating that growth in length was greater than growth in weight. Based on the present data, it can be concluded that Barb population caught in the Reservoir at the beginning of Jatigede inundations consisted of 6 - 7 size classes. Consideration for a correct environmental management are reported.
This study aims at identifying the influence of proteolytic enzymes, papain and bromelin, addition on growth rate and feed utilisation efficiency in gourami fry. Four different concentrations of papain from papaya (0%, 0.75%, 1.5% and 2.25%) and bromelin from pineapple (0%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) were used. The parameters investigated in this study were: protease enzyme activity, daily growth rate, survival rate, feed efficiency rate and water quality. Papain and bromelin activities were 2.16 and 12.41 units/mg protein, respectively. The addition of papain and bromelin did not affect the growth rate, survival and feed efficiency in a statistically significant way. It is likely that more than 60 days is required to observe the impact of enzyme addition on growth rate and feed efficiency. Thus, more experiments are needed to validate our results.
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are available in the market for use as pest control agents. They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively. Mainly, media development of EPNs as biological control agents is directed towards cost reduction, and it is possible for a variety of protein sources to be metabolised by the bacteria for optimal conditions for nematode reproduction. The aim of this research is to examine the LC50 with leaf disc assays at concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm using TUREKÂ® (Bt var aizawai), BITEÂ® (Bt var aizawai) and THURICIDEÂ® (Bt var kurstaki) on larvae of P. xylostella (n=180). The results from the field trial clearly indicated that the biocontrol agent B. thuringiensis (Bt) is superior to the chemical insecticide. B. thuringiensis is accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly susceptible and easily formulated and applied as biological control agents for sustainable agriculture. Recent scientific progress has been helpful in providing better understanding of the biological and technical parameters that influence the process, thus enabling transfer of knowledge and application to industry. As a consequence, costs for nematode-based products can be significantly reduced.
Avian polyomavirus (APV) primarily affects young birds and can cause mortality in a wide range of psittacine birds. This is the first study to detect the presence of APV in Malaysia. A total of 85 faecal samples were collected from symptom-free psittacines species from four different breeders in the Klang Valley. Upon genomic DNA extraction, the presence of APV was analysed by PCR using primers APVfull-AF (5'- ACAATGCCTAACGGAACGCC-3') and APVfull-AR (5'-CACCGAAGCGGCGATACTATA-3'). Positive results of 3 kbp PCR amplicon were detected in six out of the 30 samples (20%), which were from yellow-collared macaws, blue-headed parrots, red-crowned macaws, sulphur-crested cockatoos, blue-throated macaws, and Pesquet's parrots. As a conclusion, the prevalence of APV was clearly indicated.