This article reports the findings of a research that aimed basically at examining the loss in denotative meaning in the translation of the Holy Quran, and how these losses can be reduced. It also identified the causes of the identified losses. Five ayahs were purposefully selected to address the research questions. The research results showed that loss in denotative meaning occurred due to many factors such as lack of equivalence and the translation strategies employed. This research also suggests solutions for the identified problems.
Denotative meaning, translation loss, the Holy Quran, translation strategies
This study sought to ascertain the intentions of College of Education students towards the teaching profession using a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 464 students drawn from nine education majors at the College of Education at Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. The study revealed that while many of the students intended to join the teaching workforce, a fairly large portion did not seem to share the same interest. There is a range of internal and external factors that contribute to the positive and negative views students develop about teaching. Students' views reflected their perceptions about the status of the teacher and teaching in general. The study concluded that despite being admitted to the College of Education, student teachers were vulnerable to internal and external factors that could affect their decision and destination and consequently impact employment plans to fill the many teaching vacancies in the country. This research has important implications for pre-service and in-service teachers, teacher educators, researchers and policy makers, all of whom play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of the teaching workforce. While this study was conducted in Oman, its implications are applicable globally as teacher shortages have become a wide-reaching concern.
The purpose of this research was to examine the factors that motivate companies in selecting an accounting method to record their investment properties. This study was conducted during the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Indonesia, i.e. the enactment of Financial Accounting Standards Guidelines (Pernyataan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan) (PSAK) No. 13 (2015) on Investment Property. Research conducted on 54 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, which reported investment property on their financial statements for the period of 2008â€“2011. The results were consistent with the motivation to protect creditors through the choice of more conservative accounting methods. The results indicated that it was less likely that a company with high leverage would choose the fair value method. Additionally, this research proved that the motivation to reduce information asymmetry was associated with choosing the fair value method, whereas opportunistic motivation was not associated with choosing the fair value method. Additional findings showed that companies in the property industry were less likely to choose the fair value method. This is consistent with the political cost hypothesis, i.e. a company in the property industry avoids potential increases in tax burden due to an increase in fair value.
Accounting choice, cost method, fair value method, investment property
This study investigated the extent and quality of corporate social and environmental responsibility disclosure (CSERD) and whether firms increase CSERD in their annual reports as a form of moral responsibility (substantive actions) or to gain the attention of stakeholders (symbolic actions). A content analysis of the annual reports obtained from 1129 publicly listed companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange measured the extent and quality of CSERD between 2011 and 2013. A descriptive analysis approach was used to address the research questions. We found that the quantity (quality) of CSERD in 2013 was 15695 (19820), which was higher than it was in 2011, 9928 (12355). Community involvement themes were the most frequently disclosed items. Interestingly, our findings showed that financial services companies communicated the most CSER information in comparison to companies in other industries. In terms of the quality of disclosure, this study found that firms disclosed more substantive information rather than symbolic actions. The substantive nature of CSERD was reflected in the majority of the disclosure themes, which consisted of both internal and external activities and actions related to helping others. The finding suggests that while the Indonesian government's regulations oblige extractive industries to disclose their CSER activities, this study provides evidence that the financial industry leads the way in disclosing CSER activities in comparison to other industries. Further research is necessary to examine how government regulations affect the institutionalisation of CSERD.
Corporate social responsibility, content analysis, disclosure, Indonesia, social environmental responsibility
Executives or top management in any organization play the central role in designing firms' policies including their own remuneration, investments and capital related decisions. Due to their prime importance, executives have greater access to all important information related to organizations. If such personals have greater control over the board or organization, it alludes as managerial power. Concisely, if managerial power is high then the management may misuse such information for their personal benefits. Therefore, considering the importance of managerial power, the current study aims to investigate the effects of managerial power and executive remuneration on firm performance. In order to empirically test the proposed relationships, the current study applied PLS-SEM approach by using the data of Sugar & Allied industry of Pakistan Stock Exchange for the year 2014. The results of the current study indicated that direct effect of managerial power on firm performance did not exist, however, the empirical findings showed that managerial power had a significant effect on executive remuneration. Furthermore, managerial power also significantly influenced the firm performance through the executive remuneration or remuneration mediated the relationship between managerial power and firm performance. Therefore, the current study suggests that firm should take necessary actions to reduce the managerial power and design the pay of top management in a way that any harmful action of managers against the firm's wealth would significantly affect their own benefits.
Despite its rapid growth and expansion rates, Islamic banks are striving to compete with rivalling conventional banks that have longer history and stronger foothold in local industry. Therefore, the importance of determining the level of awareness and understanding of Islamic banking products are undeniable as Islamic banks offer products and services for Muslims and non-Muslims both. This paper examines the level of awareness and understanding of Malaysian citizens towards Islamic mortgage products, with respect to demographic factor. This study has employed the convenience sampling technique. Data collection had been conducted in four Malaysian states representing the entire peninsular Malaysia, which includes Klang Valley, Pahang (Kuantan), Kedah (Alor Setar) and Johor (Johor Bharu). Questionnaires numbering 809 had been deemed as valid and complete, and had subsequently been subjected to chi-square, t-test and ANOVA tests for data analysis purposes. The results have shown that there is no significant relationship between gender and the awareness of Islamic mortgage products. However, there are significant differences between different groups of age, gender, occupation, religious affiliation and income level in the context of understanding these products.
This study aims to examine the impact of direct agency cost of equity and cash flow volatility on the Pakistani firms' dividend pay-out behaviour. Besides, this study also examines the interaction of direct agency cost of equity and cash flow volatility on the firms' dividend pay-out behaviour. For analysis, a logistic regression model was employed and the data of 188 non-financial firms listed at the Pakistan stock exchange over the period 2011 to 2015 was used. The findings revealed that in an emerging country like Pakistan, cash flow volatility negatively affected the pay-out behaviour and agency cost of equity positively affects the pay-out behaviour. Moreover, interactions of cash flow volatility and asset turnover as proxy of direct agency cost of equity negatively affect the pay-out behaviour. However, the interaction of cash flow volatility and SGA expense as an alternative proxy of direct agency cost of equity is insignificant. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by providing an empirical evidence of the interaction effect of agency cost of equity and cash flow volatility on firm's dividend pay-out behaviour which is yet to be examined in other developed and developing countries. It also provides several implications for multiple parties such as firm's managers who determine their abilities to pay dividend and investors while making their investment decisions.
Agency cost of equity, cash flow volatility, dividends, Pakistan
This study aimed to determine the differences in dietary intake and quality between normal-weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) young adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A case-control study was conducted among 294 private universities students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Respondents completed a set of questionnaire and 3 days 24-hr dietary recall. Weight, height, body fat percentage (%BF), visceral fat, and waist circumference of respondents were measured. Dietary intake of respondents was analyzed and their diet quality was evaluated using a healthy eating index (HEI) scale. Findings displayed OW/OB group had significantly higher energy, macronutrient, sugar, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intake (p < 0.001) than NW group. The total HEI score was signiï¬cantly lower in OW/OB group [45.14 (11.13)] than NW group [51.43 (11.61)]. This was affected by component scores of percentages (%) of energy from fat (p < 0.001) and saturated fat (p = 0.023), cholesterol and sodium intake (p < 0.001) with OW/OB had significantly lower score than NW group. However, OW/OB group achieved a significantly higher component score for cereals (p < 0.001) and meat food groups (p = 0.005) than NW group. HEI analysis also displayed both groups achieved low component scores for fruits, vegetables, milk, and food variety. Although OW/OB group had poorer diet quality than NW group, both groups had low consumption of fruits, vegetables, milk, and less varied diet. Therefore, there is a need for educational campaigns on food groups' diversification especially in increasing nutrient-dense food in their diet to increase awareness in healthy eating among young adults.
Teenage pregnancy is among the main social issues that involves Sarawak teenagers. Teenage pregnancy may lead to various social, psychological, and physiological effects to the mother and child. Sarawak is one of the states in Malaysia that recorded a substantial number of teenage pregnancy cases. As such, an in-depth understanding of this issue may provide some important inputs for evidence-based sexual and reproductive health prevention programs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify the potential underlying social risk factors that might be contributed to teenage pregnancy cases in Sarawak. The literature review had identified at least six social risk factors that might contribute to teenage pregnancy cases in Sarawak. Those social risk factors were ruralâ€“urban migration, dysfunctional family relationship, flaws in marriage customary law, alcohol and drug abuse, low awareness on sexual and reproductive health, and pornography. A better understanding of this issue can strengthen the effectiveness of health education strategies toward improving sexual and reproductive health among the Sarawak's young population.
Risk factors, Sarawak, social issues, teenage, teenage pregnancy, unwed teenagers
Vagrancy is a major contemporary social problem that the world faces, specifically in the third world countries such as the Philippines. Metro Manila had the world's highest homeless population. It is estimated that there are 22.8 million Filipinos who are homeless. This situation becomes very alarming particularly in urban areas in which several numbers of vagrants are present. This study explored the city street beggars' lived experiences in the streets, the influencing factors and reasons that caused them to engage in vagrancy. This study was conducted in the streets of Malaybalay City, Bukidnon, Mindanao in the months of August to December 2016. The participants were the six (6) vagrants who were purposively chosen. The phenomenological method of research was utilized through a heavy form of in-depth interviews. Interview guide questionnaire was adopted and modified based from the questionnaire of Taludhar (2013). Results from the in-depth interviews were examined qualitatively to supplement and deepen the analyses and interpretation of the findings. The findings showed the vagrants lived experiences on the street, specifically begging, unsecured on their condition, experienced ostracism and discrimination, and other forms of social injustices. This study has implications on policies protecting and support services for the disadvantaged sector in the Philippine society.
Injustice, Malaybalay City, Mindanao, phenomenology, street beggars, vagrancy
Facebook (FB) is the most popular social networking sites (SNS) in the world at the moment. This factor alone has prompted many educational researchers to investigate how Facebook can be utilized for educational purposes, focusing on the social interaction between users, particularly in the higher education contexts. In terms of language teaching, researchers are also beginning to be aware of Facebook's potential to enhance and enrich English language teaching and learning at all levels since the written language is the main form of communication in the Facebook environment. Driven by these trends and practices, the researchers carried out an international study involving Malaysia, Japan, Indonesia and Maldives to investigate and compare higher education students' perceptions of Facebook as an environment for learning English. Using survey questionnaire, we find that learners from the four countries view Facebook as an online environment that encourages and facilitates incidental learning of English, but with a few variations according to the countries. Several implications on the use of Facebook for English language teaching and learning in higher education are also discussed.
Facebook, incidental learning, learning English, online environment, perceptions of learning English
This instrumental case study investigates reasons behind female school principals resigning from their posts as school principals in Gauteng Province in South Africa. The qualitative study focused on the experiences of two purposefully chosen former school principals who resigned from their leadership positions before retirement. Data were collected through in-depth face-to-face individual interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim by the researchers. Direct quotations were used to present the data, and these were thematically analysed using content analysis. The study established that female school principals in the study resigned from their positions because of individual, social and work-related barriers. Insidious, subtle, discriminatory gender-related practices and barriers that worked against the leadership of women were established. Key among these were jealousy, backbiting, rejection of female authority, lack of support from colleagues, lack of role models, isolation, discrimination and loneliness. These barriers were the same as those that contributed to the underrepresentation of females from positions of leadership as reviewed in the literature review. The study recommends a change of attitudes regarding leadership perception by individuals, society and organisations. While the findings of this study are useful in providing insights as is the case in most qualitative studies; the sample is rather small for generalisability. Hence it is recommended that future researchers could conduct large-scale research on this aspect.
'Boys' club, emotional labour, female school principals, gender roles, glass ceiling, glass escalator, socio-cultural contexts, women leaving leadership
Architectural graduates must undergo sufficient academic training in handling disaster aftermath so that they can fully participate in post-disaster recovery and respond effectively to increasing worldwide demand. This article attempts to examine the contents of the architectural curriculum and evaluate academic initiatives that are relevant to post-disaster recovery in a case study of three Turkish universities. A list of skills and knowledge required for efficient architectural learning on disaster aftermath was developed through three stages Delphi technique in which three foreign and 10 Turkish experts participated. Semi structured interview with selected academicians of the case study universities was conducted to enhance the examination of the curriculum and to evaluate relevant initiatives. The results show that the architectural curricula of the selected universities have limited and indirect relevance. The required skills and knowledge may be embedded into the architectural curricula at the undergraduate level. Each university should then decide on the methods they can employ to achieve their respective curricular designs.
This paper inspects if the purchasing power parity (PPP) exists with asymmetric adjustment in the MINT (Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey) countries. An asymmetric co-integration approach was conducted to test for the presence of long-run PPP in the MINT nations by utilizing the threshold co-integration tests (TAR and MTAR) of Enders and Siklos. By employing monthly data from 2003 to 2016, results of the threshold co-integration tests (using the TAR model) revealed proof of long-run purchasing power parity accompanied by an asymmetric adjustment in Nigeria and Turkey but not in Mexico and Indonesia. According to the asymmetric error correction model for Nigeria, negative deviations from PPP are terminated more rapidly than positive deviations in attaining the purchasing power parity. However, in Turkey, positive deviations are terminated more quickly than negative deviations. The results of the long-run estimates generally show that most of the coefficients are statistically significant indicating that a unit increase in the domestic price (LCPI) results in a depreciation of some units in the nominal exchange rates, and a unit increase in the foreign price (LCPIUS) brings about an appreciation of some units in nominal exchange rates, for both Nigeria and Turkey. In Nigeria and Turkey, we experience both exchange rate depreciation and appreciation. Consequently, depreciation will cause exports to be cheaper, imports very expensive, and cause inflation to increase in Nigeria and Turkey. Nonetheless, appreciation of the exchange rate will cause exports to be more expensive, imports cheaper and hence, reduce inflation in Nigeria and Turkey.
Asymmetric adjustment, breakdates threshold regression, Momentum Threshold Autoregressive (MTAR) model, purchasing power parity, Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) model
Social networking site (SNS) has become a platform for online self-presentation and a replacement of face-to-face (FTF) interaction. Users tend to like or watch the shared video because video sharing is described as a documentary-related meaningful event on SNS. The use of SNS is associated with personality and the site enables users to hide their identity and emotions from others. An Introvert refers to a person with less dominant personality in interaction and socialization. This study aims to explore whether provocative visual sharing in SNS affects emotional changes in Introverts. The experimental study was conducted via online using a post-test group design. A total of 30 Introvert consisting of students aged 20-29 years were selected through purposive sampling. All subjects were added into groups and required to answer a questionnaire before and after watching a provocative visual. Data were analysed using non-parametric test; Mann-Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon-Signed Rank Test. The results shows that there is no emotional differences between gender and insignificance changes in emotion for the Introverts as a whole (z = -1.170, p = 0.077). Their emotion was stable and they did not actively participate in giving comments about the visual. In conclusion, users tend to share a variety of stimulation in SNS but these activities did not affect the Introverts' emotion so much.
This paper reports and discusses the quantitative findings of the perceived washback effects of the English language school-based assessment on teachers at the lower-secondary level in Malaysia. It aims to do so from the point of view of a group of pre-service English language teachers so as to provide both pre-service and in-service teachers with a better idea of the roles they need to play and the decisions they need to make about washback. Test washback studies reported in the literature, upon confirming the presence or absence of it, they have attempted to identify the factors within their respective contexts that appear to mediate the intended washback. Considering the recent implementation of the English language school-based assessment at the lower-secondary level intended to minimize the exam-orientedness within the Malaysian education system, the present study was therefore carried out to assess the mediation of factors at both macro and micro levels. The perspectives of a group of pre-service English language teachers were looked into. Specifically, the study looked into the extent to which the perspectives of the teacher-trainees in a teacher training college in the country were in line/in conflict with that of the Malaysian Examinations Syndicate's (MES). Drawing mainly on the data from the survey administered, it was found that these teachers perceived there were some barriers at both the micro and macro levels, which inhibited the intended washback effect. Findings of the study may help policymakers in minimizing the barriers, which may inhibit the intended washback effect.
Mediating factors, pre-service teachers, school-based assessment, test washback
Sexual violence is considered a serious problem due to its keep-increasing cases. Schools play very important role in preventing sexual violence by providing educational services based on gender equality through school management standard. This study evaluates the implementation of management standard of gender-responsive school and the challenges to preventing sexual violence. Four senior high schools in Sragen Regency Indonesia were selected. The quantitative data were collected from a survey to 198 respondents comprising principals, teachers and students. The qualitative data were obtained from focus group discussions. The quantitative data were analyzed using percentage, whilst the qualitative data were analyzed using interactive-model analysis of Miles and Huberman. The findings show that the majority of the respondents (96.5%) stated that school management standard had been gender-responsive. Nevertheless, the schools did not have sufficient facilities and infrastructures which could prevent sexual violence. The challenges to preventing sexual violence are the schools' willingness to build critical awareness of all students, teachers, employees and parents by formulating their vision, mission and strategy based on gender equality values, developing the principles of conduct and integrating sexual violence issue into the schools' academic and non-academic activities.
Gender equality, sexual violence, school management standard
The present study investigated the relationships between peer attachment, self-efficacy and aggression among early adolescents. Furthermore, this study examined the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between peers attachment and aggression among early adolescents. A total of 471 early adolescents aged 14 were selected from eight selected secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia, recruited using multistage cluster sampling method. The questionnaires consisted of the revised version of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C) and Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). The results revealed that there was significant negative relationships between peer attachment, self-efficacy and early adolescent's aggression. Additionally, the result also showed that peer attachment had an indirect effect on aggression via self-efficacy. Evidently, the relationship between peer attachment and aggression among early adolescents was fully mediated by self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and peers attachment play important roles in the development of aggression among early adolescents. Practical recommendations are discussed and those factors should be taken into consideration to implement the interventions in curbing aggression among early adolescents in Malaysia.
Aggression, early adolescents, peer attachment, self-efficacy
The purpose of the study was to determine whether there were significant mean differences of motives for participation in physical activity between male and female school students and whether there was a correlation between motives for participation in physical activity and amount of physical activity per week period among preadolescent students in Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a primary school in Kelantan. We invited students aged from 10 to 11 years old to fill in the Malay version of the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale for youth (PALMS-Y-M). Participants completed a demographic survey and the measure of their motives to participate in physical activity. The PALMS-Y-M consisted of 28 items measuring motives of individuals for participation in physical activity. A total of 253 preadolescent students participated in this study. After excluding missing data, there were 204 usable sets of data for subsequent analysis. The majority of the respondents were female (56.4%). All of the participants were Malay. The results of the study showed that males and females only exhibited a significant difference in motives for participation in physical activity in terms of competition (p = 0.001). There were significant correlations between four PALMS-Y-M motives (e.g., competition, affiliation, psychological, appearance) and total hours of physical activity per week. Motives for participation in physical activity play an important role in enhancing frequency of physical activity among primary school students. Thus, it is crucial to motivate preadolescents to engage in physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle.
The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the use of performance strategies of Negeri Sembilan Sukan Malaysia (SUKMA) 2014 athletes during practice and competition. The participants consisted of 142 athletes (49 team sports, 93 individual sports). The participants completed the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) questionnaire during the final camp before competing in the competition. Results showed that there were significant differences in performance strategies used by individual and team sport athletes during practice and competition conditions. Individual athletes were better in using performance strategies during practice (i.e., goal setting, relaxation and self-talk) and competition condition (i.e., goal setting and self-talk) compared to team sport athletes. The idea of using the psychological skills training could be taken into consideration for coaches and sport psychologist in order to help athletes improve their performance.
Competition, individual sport, practice, performance strategies, team sport
The major motif in Pinter's drama is the desire for power, coupled with the achievement of dominance. Pinter attacks the policies of oppressive regimes practicing violence and torture, and his political dramas concentrate on the struggle between the individual and the authoritative power. Pinter's The Birthday Party (1957) examines the significance of power and identity in spaces of self and power relations. In One for the Road (1980) and Mountain Language (1988), Pinter deals with incarceration and torture, using the theatrical space of prison to highlight and examine the narratives of authoritative control and violation of human rights. Space as a motif in Pinter's plays, serves as a site for discourse and aims to mark the interaction between power and identity. In this paper, I will attempt to examine how Pinter uses the idea of space and to what extent space can be read and decoded as a site for struggle for power and identity. My aim is to show that how an ordinary physical space of a room become a site for recreation of new spaces for exercise of power and maintaining identity. However, I aim to delve into these spaces of conflict, exploitation and subjugation showing the significance of power and identity. This paper, therefore, concludes that Pinter's theatre of power constitutes a polyphony of political rhetoric within the spaces, all competing for approval or control.
Approval, authority, control, identity, pinter, space, theatre of power
As early as 1999, Werthner and Klein have acknowledged the disintermediation threat of Traditional Travel Agencies (TTA) due to the emergence of Virtual Travel Agencies (e.g. Travelocity, Expedia) and infomediaries (e.g. Travelbids, Priceline). Almost 18 years later, (as of 2017), it is interesting to investigate how TTAs cope with the disintermediation challenges by integrating ICT into their business models. Older and more established institutions (more than 20 years in business) like TTAs were said to bemore resistant to change (Institutional Theory). Will it be the case for industries going through disintermediation threat? Qualitative multiple case studies method was used to ensure the issues were explored through multiple lenses. Semi-structured interviews, website content analysis and direct observation are used to collect data from fifteen case firms in Malaysia. The findings suggests a three level ICT adoption model for SME TTA in Malaysia: six were 'low ICT adopters', five were 'intermediate ICT adopter' and four were 'advance ICT adopter'. Low ICT adopter merely use static website and email, while intermediate and advance adopter acquired ICT capabilities almost equivalent to those of Virtual Travel Agencies with interactive website or advanced e-business. This indicated that majority of SME TTAs in Malaysia were embracing ICT adequately. The study also concluded that non-stage models explained adoption levels more appropriately since some TTAs were found regressing to lower level after advancing to higher level.
Disintermediation, case studies, ICT Adoption, SME traditional travel agencies, Malaysia
Halal tourism, which arises from the growth in the number of Muslim travellers world-wide and the rapid development of halal industry, is defined as the engagement of any object or action by Muslim travellers that conforms to the Islamic teachings and facilitates the practice of the religion. As such, the application of halal concept in tourism, including in its development and marketing, must be guided by the Islamic principles. With the purpose to understand the current state of knowledge and practice, we reviewed the literature on halal tourism that has been published in high-tier academic journals. Based on the review, we identified the emergent themes and the knowledge gaps for future research. Among others, we found that the industry is booming with increased participations from Muslim-minority countries. However, there seems to be variations in the practice, perhaps due to the complexity of the market needs. The implementation of halal tourism by Muslim-minority countries is the most pressing issue due to the need to ensure that the process and the service offered strictly comply with the requirements of Islamic teachings, while at the same time, to ensure that the countries are able to develop their halal sectors into competitive industries. Understanding the implementation of halal tourism is an important agenda for future research to ensure that the service provided addresses the fundamental issue of Muslims' obligations to adhere to the Islamic teachings in all aspects of their lives including while travelling.
Scrutinizing the MA theses, as the culmination of candidates' MA studies, in terms of oral and written feedback, the current research was conducted to pinpoint the mostly addressed regulations of thesis writing by both supervisors and examiners. Furthermore, the chapters receiving more feedback/comments on the part of supervisors and examiners, and the potential differences between oral and written feedback were also probed. To these aims, 23 viva sessions along with 24 first drafts of theses submitted to supervisors were gathered as corpora. The corpora were analyzed based on adapted framework to find out the thesis writing regulations addressed more frequently by supervisors and examiners. Finally, Chi Square analysis was run to see if there is any significant difference between oral and written feedback concerning thesis writing regulations and chapters receiving feedback. The findings of the investigation revealed that universal framework for thesis writing was found to be addressed more frequently in providing oral and written feedback. Furthermore, Chapter Two and Chapter One were the target of most of supervisors and examiners' feedback, respectively. The result of Chi square analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in terms of both, thesis writing regulations as well as chapters. It is hoped that the findings of the study will contribute to the process of thesis writing and facilitate successful viva sessions to both, the candidates and supervisors.
Oral feedback, thesis, TEFL candidates, viva sessions, written feedback
Language educators and researchers frequently advocate two things in language acquisition: vocabulary learning and reading for pleasure. Vocabulary knowledge plays a crucial role in language mastery and extensive reading is deemed extremely fitting for vocabulary learning. For one, it is considered a pedagogically efficient approach as both reading and vocabulary acquisition can occur simultaneously. Sustained Independent Reading (SIR) is a vocabulary knowledge development intervention based on the belief that self-selection motivates readers to read, broadly and independently, over a sustained period of time. The present study was carried out in a public university in Malaysia over the course of one semester, involving two groups of 25 Malaysian participants each. The first group (Experimental) experienced 10 weeks of SIR while the second group (Control) did not. The participants were enrolled in the same remedial English proficiency course at the university and were matched in terms of vocabulary size. Results from the pre-, post- and delayed post-tests show greater lexical gains for the Experimental group with respect to vocabulary size, indicating that SIR is an effective method for motivating English language learners to read (broadly, independently and over a sustained period of time) and more importantly, for vocabulary knowledge development. This study's findings are relevant to stakeholders of English language education, specifically with regards to promoting extensive reading at the tertiary level, shaping Malaysian ESL policy in higher education, and providing direction for future related research.
ESL/EFL, learner autonomy, Malaysian tertiary learners, motivation to read, Sustained Independent Reading (SIR), vocabulary knowledge development
The integration of Facebook into English as a Second Language (ESL) environment are prevalent in many higher institution settings, but not many focuses on the receptive skills of reading. This study examines university students' perceptions of Facebook for ESL reading activities. To accomplish this, three methods of data collection were employed; a questionnaire, an informal Facebook group (IFG), and interviews. The findings show that students with good reading ability undertook more reading activities on Facebook, perceived the highest development of language skills after using Facebook and had the most positive attitudes towards English language learning on Facebook compared to students with moderate and poor reading ability. The students saw the effectiveness of the IFG in ESL, but, participated more as silent readers and believed that a higher involvement from the moderator would further enhance ESL progress. They preferred to read non-academic content on Facebook, particularly creative productions like short stories and poems to further cultivate ESL reading habits, develop reading comprehension and boost reading interest.
English as a Second Language (ESL), Facebook, Malaysian university students reading ability, reading activities