Religious constraints on sexuality may have consequences for the transmission of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Recognising that several religious tenets may have the positive effect of reducing the prevalence of STIs if incorporated into STI preventive campaigns prompted the decision to carry out this research. This study was conducted to understand how religion tenets can be effectively incorporated into STI preventive campaigns in Nigeria. An in-depth interview was conducted with 32 young people from the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that religiouslymotivated young people were likely to avoid engaging in sexual practices as a result of their religious tenets. Informants with religious faith mentioned that the virtue of temperance assisted them in curtailing their sexual desires thus reducing their chances of exposure to risky sexual behaviour. Most of the informants mentioned that religion was one aspect of culture that could be used to prevent young people from being involved in risky sexual behaviour or pre-marital sex. The obvious implication arising from this position suggested that the inclusion of religion and the virtues they taught in STI campaigns would result in more positive STI behavioural change among young people. The conclusion is that religion as an attribute of culture can be used to discourage a large number of young people from becoming involved in risky sexual behaviour that leads to STIs.
STIs, campaign, youth, religion, risky sexual behaviour, culture
This study aims to investigate new venture determinant factors of Muslimpreneurs. Muslimpreneurs is conceptualised as capabilities of driving innovative societal change on the principles of the al-Quran and al-Sunah not solely for profit, but above all to benefit all of mankind. The two main research questions are, “What factors determine new venture creation?” and “Does training moderate new venture creation?” The study employs the hypothetical deductive approach using the multivariate regressions analysis. Four constructs, namely, Islamic motivation, entrepreneurial capabilities, Muslimpreneur characteristics and social capital are regressed as determinants of new venture creation readiness. Data were gathered from Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia students across all faculties (N=439). The results reveal that all factors are significantly related to new venture creation except social capital and training does moderate the relationship. The findings might be helpful in developing Muslimpreneurs as the main players of Islamic entrepreneurialism that would be the thrust of social enterprises development.
Entrepreneurial capabilities, Muslimpreneurs, new venture creation, social capital, social enterprise
We develop a mathematical model for automatic adjustment of new transportation fares in terms of old transportation fares, the number of litres of petrol/diesel a vehicle requires, the quantum of adjustment, the number of trips a vehicle makes on a specified route and the number of passengers a vehicle carries. We recommend that any adjustment to existing fares should be exactly the loading and that any additional amount to the existing fares differing from the loading leads to either overcharging or undercharging of passengers. We also show that any negotiation about the quantum of adjustment to existing fares reduces to the proper assignment of the number of trips a vehicle plies on a specified route. We tested our models on privately operated commercial vehicles using data from major lorry stations in Accra, the National Petroleum Authority and Drivers and Vehicular License Authority in Ghana. The results indicated that passengers are undercharged on some routes whereas they are overcharged on others. The model should be useful to transportation planners, coordinators and administrators in setting and adjusting road transportation fares. It should assist in settling disputes about new transportation fares between passengers and drivers that arise when there is adjustment in fuel prices.
Understanding the fate and movement of contaminants through soil is essential in applications such as ecological and environmental risk assessment. Abundance of clayey soil is available across the world. Presented in this paper is a parametric study of the movement of contaminants through clays. The current paper provides a holistic approach addressing these issues by providing an understanding of the factors influencing movement of contaminants in soil strata using available numerical models (advection and dispersion) for contaminant flow through porous medium. A numerical model using the finite difference and finite element method is considered in this study to estimate the contaminant transport phenomenon presented by Zhao et al. (1994) that utilises the analytical solution proposed by Ogata and Banks (1961). The results and discussions of the parametric study highlight the influence of various properties of soil and the contaminant on permeability and concentration (contaminant) variation with time and depth. The finding indicates that the diffusion coefficient (Dx) plays an important role in determining the time taken for the concentration of contaminants to be evenly spread in a vertical direction.
Growing demand for and limitations to traditional water sources (surface-groundwater) led to the development of non-conventional sources. This research assessed the waste stabilisation pond treatment system built in the Green Belt, GB, in Khartoum state and the prototype model that was constructed simulating the same dimensions of the GB plant. The study took into account the system’s hydraulic symmetry, rheological simulation, organic loadings conditions and some parameters applied at the station. Wastewater reaching the GB station is domestic in addition to industrial waste from tanning plants and Khartoum’s coin manufacturing industry. Monthly laboratory analysis results for heavy metals and toxic substances at the GB station and model farm were monitored and recorded for two years. Attained values were not in conformity with the specifications of treated effluent reuse and reclamation, particularly in the GB station. This research applied a case study to upgrade wastewater treatment in an experimental field model using natural means. This is through introduction of a system of aquatic plants as an advanced biological treatment following natural ponds. The achieved results indicated high-quality of wastewater treatment with low-cost, which is suitable for agricultural irrigation or other beneficial uses without exposing stakeholders to any health risks or environmental ailments. Shouldered research advocates broader implementation of this advanced biological treatment system for gray wastewater using vegetation and plants. This is due to sound socio-economic rewards and ease of operation and maintenance. The purpose of re-use of such treated effluent reduces health risks and ill-environmental impacts. This is besides supports to traditional water sources, contribution to integrated water resources management and mitigation of any potential environmental pollution.
Wastewater, heavy metals, toxic substances, oxidation ponds, soba
User-centred design applies to processes in which end-users influence how a design takes shape. Usability engineering is now in the direction of the user-centred approach. This article addresses a review of its restrictions and challenges. Problems will be focused on healthcare as it is a critical system that may cause medical errors which can lead to the patient’s injury or death. Through user interaction with healthcare devices/software, many usability problems have been identified including poor legibility, feature clutter, poorly distinguished alarms or alerts, lack of intelligent design, poor feedback on system behaviour, no provision for online help, poor support in local languages and right-handed design. Analysis of the usability evaluation technique was conducted to remedy the identified problems and meet the usability objective.
Healthcare, Health Information Technology (HIT), infusion pump, usability challenges, Usability Evaluation Method (UEM)
Scholars have argued that voting behaviour changes over time and, today, voters are no longer loyal to traditional ‘political brands’. We, hence, try to explore, through constructing ‘action corpora’ using novels, movies and TV dramas from the last 50 years (1960-2012) relating to fictional US presidents to see what the mass media have been conveying to the public subconsciously over time. We then looked at and discussed how people have responded since they last voted over the past five US presidential elections from 1992 through 2008 using excerpts from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). While voters were found to fall into two broad categories when making their voting decisions, powerful media bias right before elections could have caused vote swings and, hence, voters could have voted for ‘the wrong person with all the wrong reasons’ when, in fact, they were subconsciously warned – not by anyone else, but by the mass media.
Corpus application, fictional POTUS, mass media, movies, novels, presidential election, TV dramas, voting behaviour
As Rider and Thomason (2008) argue, facilitating activities that focus on developing cognitive processes are commonly ignored in academic literacy classes, despite being crucial. In most programmes, reading for general meaning (gist) is the most common reading objective and little regard is given to activities that transfer directly to writing. This presentation of a classroom-based, action research project will demonstrate how students’ academic persuasive essay literacy skills were enhanced through conducting argument mapping and analyzing the means of persuasive appeal in text. Rhetorically-intensive academic papers commonly move from a major premise to a related specific statement, then to a conclusion, following the principles of Aristotelian syllogism; they also supply evidence to support claims, critique assumptions and rebut objections. Asking students to notice these patterns in a text and to organise them into a visual representation (argument map) facilitates transfer to their own writing. Following this activity, students can be asked to analyse the means of persuasion in the argument map. Aristotle divided these means into three categories: Ethos (credibility or ethical appeal); Logos (logic or the use of reasoning) and Pathos (eliciting the reader’s sympathies and imagination). In order to persuade readers that their ideas are more valid than their counterparts’, writers appeal to these means. When an analysis has been conducted, students can be asked to critically assess the effectiveness of the persuasive appeals and to compare authors’ argumentation. Apart from deconstructing a text through critical reading, students can look to apply similar methodology in their own writing. Skills of this nature are not just common in academic tertiary courses (Kibler, Walqui, & Bunch, 2014), but also in other disciplines, for example, Law (Berger, 2010). Results from this research will be presented using examples from this researcher’s undergraduate Ideas and Exposition writing courses at the National University of Singapore.
Academic literacy, argumentative persuasive essays (APE), argument map construction, Aristotelian means of persuasion
Increasing migration, powered by advanced transportation, information and communication technologies, has created huge diasporic communities around the globe. Through push and pull forces, citizens of countries across the world have migrated from their homelands to near and far locations in search of better socio-political and economic opportunities and possibilities. In their new milieu, these corps of transnational migrants maintain close attachment with their countries of origin via a plethora of cyber-powered homeland communication and media artifacts. The migration of homeland traditional print and electronic media to the Internet, however, offers news avenues for migrants’ consumption of unadulterated news about events happening in their countries. While migrants’ homeland media consumption has received tremendous attention among scholars, little concern has been accorded factors that predict the forms and types of homeland media attracting migrants’ attention. This study, therefore, explored the relationship between perceived credibility and consumption of news from the online newspapers among Nigerian students in Malaysia (N=321). Findings revealed differential perceptions of three Nigerian online newspapers in terms of story depth, fairness, accuracy and trustworthiness. Perceived credibility of each online newspaper relates to reading the newspapers the most among the respondents. The study thus offered practical implications of perceived credibility of homeland newspapers for increased readership among diasporic audiences who could be valuable patrons of and contributors to homeland journalistic products.
Perceived credibility, homeland media, diaspora, migrants, Nigerian students in Malaysia
Media and politics are inseparable; media play an important role in depicting the political lanscape within a country. It is well understood that in Malaysia, political parties are in control of mainstream media. Journalists are prone to write within the boundaries of the law that enforces a leash on the freedom of press. This causes a biased form of reporting where political issues are concerned. This may well also be one of the major reasons in the rise of various online media that are taking over the tasks of conventional journalists in this country, one of which is the advent of citizen journalism that consists of ordinary citizens writing about happenings around them. They, however, are without journalistic background and some, if not all, write based only on experience and interest. The question that arises as a result of this is: Does the emergence of citizen journalism carry enough influence to change the Malaysian political landscape?
Journalism is often called the news business - the gathering, processing and delivering of important and interesting information and further developments or follow-up stories by newspapers and broadcast media. It is undeniably and inextricably entangled in that giant, whirling entity often referred to as the media. The media, with all their idiosyncrasies often race to be the first at the scene of a story to fulfil the need to know of the public. The situation was no different with the violent shooting down of MH17. Malaysians were simply not ready for this tragedy. Journalism does not prepare anyone to catalogue the human drama arising from the rarest and weirdest of human tragedies such as this. The crash site of flight MH17 was like the set of a horror story, except that movies are never allowed to show what the journalists saw over that weekend. No matter what the situation, coverage of the news needs to be ethical. Foreign and local journalists alike were eager to cover the tragedy. Some were driven by enthusiasm, the magnitude of the story and the hunger for the truth. Nevertheless, some steered from being ethical and made serious errors of judgement. While presenting Sky’s lunchtime coverage of the flight MH17 disaster, Colin Brazier stooped down to look at a piece of debris. It was a child’s suitcase. He put his hand inside and lifted out a water bottle and a set of keys. As he did so his mental circuitbreaker finally engaged and he apologized instantly on-air for what he was doing. Some were too proud to admit their mistakes and had their news agencies do it for them; such was the case of Dutch current affairs show EenVandaag, which apologized after its reporter Caroline Van Den Heuvel picked up and read from a diary of one of the Malaysian crash victims on flight MH17 from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur. The actions of the Malaysia Gazette crew in eastern Ukraine when its chief reporter was filmed using a stick to poke at and turn over what appears to be a body part of an MH17 victim, might well be one of the most unconscionable acts at the crash site thus far. Good journalism requires many elements and empathy is one of them; so is understanding the boundaries of decency and taste.
Social network sites (SNS) have been used to bring people across the globe closer to each other, especially youths. It is important to match the types of SNS to the motives for using them as well as to acquire a profile of youth users. Specifically, this study tries (1) to find out the types of SNS subscribed to by youths, (2) to gauge the frequency of their using the SNS per week, (3) to rank their motives for using the SNS, and (4) to study and compare the differences or variance in the profiles of youths using the SNS. A survey was conducted nationwide among youths aged 17-40 years old using a self-developed questionnaire. A total of 703 respondents were identified for the study. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) WIN 20. There were more male respondents than female, and they were mainly Malay, single, Muslims, adolescents and undergraduates. Results of the youth profiles revealed that there were differences among the youths’ demographic characteristics and the types of SNS they subscribed to. The top three SNS identified were Facebook, Yahoo and Skype. Almost one third used them daily. Most of the SNS were used for social, followed by education and communication motives. Specifically, Twitter is also used for social, communication and entertainment motives while blogs were used for the religious, education, business and politics motives. The study applied both the social network theory and information-seeking theory with the purpose of finding out how youths could be motivated to draw on the vast knowledge available and accessible in the SNS for their own benefit, and not merely for social networking.