This article discusses the plight of the Rohingya, an ethnic group in Myanmar who has been suffering an institutionalised persecution and discrimination since the administration of military junta. The paper argues that the Rohingya is facing a serious threat of genocide, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, while the government of Myanmar has failed in its primary duty to protect them. Due to such failure, the responsibility to protect them falls on the international community to prevent the occurrence of mass atrocities under the principle of Responsibility to Protect (R2P). The objectives of this article are twofold. First is to provide an understanding of the plight of the Rohingya and second is to analyse the application of R2P as a solution to the crisis. This article provides recommendations to the government of Myanmar, Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the United Nations (UN) on the role to be played through tri-parte action for the application of the principle of R2P in Rohingya crisis. To do this, the researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of plethora of literatures and official reports on Rohingya crisis and R2P.
Responsibility to Protect, Rohingya, ASEAN, United Nations
Migration has been a socio-political hallmark in Southeast Asia, more so in recent times as the region advances towards an ASEAN community by 2015. With its steady economic growth and internal political stability, Malaysia receives the most number of migrants aside from Thailand and Singapore. Statelessness and its risk look set to continue in the long run both as a cause and implication of cross-border movement of persons. A considerable number of such migrants share one striking attribute, i.e. their irregular status in the host country, and hence, the lack of protections of their basic rights both from the source and host countries. Going on the premise that there is a strong underexplored nexus between migration and statelessness, this article unravels the interconnections between these two scenarios. Beginning with the crucial introduction of the term 'statelessness' and its causes and consequences, this article subsequently embarks on exploring the manner in which modern patterns of migration expose several groups of vulnerable persons of a migratory background to the risk and limbo of statelessness in Malaysia. Central to then analysis are how the identified groups of persons are impacted by both concepts of de jure and de facto statelessness, the unique interplay between migration and statelessness, the many facets of disenfranchisement of rights saddled upon them by their irregular status, and the underlying challenges behind such anomaly. The article adopts international law as the main framework to guide the overall discussion.
Malaysia, migration, refugees, statelessness, trafficking, undocumented, UNHCR
Civil servants play important roles in ensuring the effectiveness and efficiency of public administration whilst executing exemplar leadership qualities within the boundaries of ethics, namely, accountability and integrity. Therefore, to have effective and efficient civil servants, other additional ethical aspects of moral and discipline should be emphasised. As a consequence of being proactive to the problem and weaknesses that arise, governmental financial management, administration, ethical cases management, corruption and fraud, and misuse of power which are prohibited by the rules, regulation and religion will be ameliorated. Unethical behaviour needs to be discouraged and to the extent, eradicated. One apparent method of accomplishing this is to encourage individuals to serve as monitors of corporate behaviour and whistle blow on conduct that we know can be highly destructive to the welfare of thousands of individuals. This paper provides preliminary insights meant to identify the genuine whistleblowers rather than chicken little among civil servants in selected government agencies. In order to find the genuine whistleblowers, the perception of civil servants towards whistleblowing itself and the factors that contribute to whistleblowing which are the organisational support and the organisational policy were focused on. Hence, by knowing the perceptions of civil servants and the factors that contribute to whistleblowing, genuine whistleblowers can be identified against the cowardly ones.
Whistleblowing, leadership, civil servants, government agencies, integrity
The objective of this paper is to examine the issue of non-admissibility of the principle of therapeutic privilege in clinical trials. In medical treatment, doctors could decide not to disclose information for the best interest of the patients by adopting the principle of therapeutic privilege. This principle exempts doctors from disclosing risky information at his discretion especially if by doing so will cause harm or trauma to patients. However, this principle is not recognised in clinical trials. Instead, the need to obtain patient's consent by way of informed consent has been mandatorily imposed as a way to protect the patients. The doctor-investigator must disclose full information pertaining to the trial to the patient. This paper is a library based collating literature review data. Qualitative methodology and analysis were used in this paper. This paper revealed that despite the fact that the principle of therapeutic privilege has not been recognised in clinical trials, the attitude of patients that placed high hopes on doctor-investigator has indirectly encouraged the latter not to disclose information by adopting this principle. This paper implies that the doctor-investigator practices the principle of therapeutic privilege, an act of paternalism that has been brought into the process of consent taking in clinical trials. In conclusion, the Good Clinical Practice Training Curriculum by the Ministry of Heath Malaysia is suggested to be improvised and further enhanced.
Clinical trials, doctor-investigator, informed consent, the principle of therapeutic privilege, patient-subject
This study aims to investigate the perception of undergraduate students on their language competence in meeting the requirement to take English for Specific purpose course at tertiary level. The investigation was conducted using survey questionnaire on 250 undergraduate students to obtain their perception on their actual language competence based on the national language examination results as preparatory to register for Professional & Communication skills course (English for Specific Purpose subject). The findings indicated that despite obtaining excellent grade in English Language, a majority of them perceived lack in language competence to sit for the university language course. About 42.3% (n=92) of the respondents perceived that their results over rated their actual oral skills, while 48.2% (n=105) of the respondents perceived that their results matched their actual writing skills. The findings could implicate the reliability of the national examination to be used as benchmarking criteria in accepting students in universities. The findings could also motivate the Ministry of Education in improving the method of language assessment to give equivalent weightage to all language skills to not heavily focusing on reading or writing skills.
Language competence, undergraduate perceptions, English for Specific purposes
There are many dimensions in the internationalisation of higher education. One of the dimensions is international students. This dimension has been given great emphasis by many institutions for diverse reasons such as economy, while others are reputation and ranking of the university. Universities around the globe undergo tremendous pressure due to stiff competition both in terms of student enrolment and securing fund. All these have posed a great challenge to universities to re-look into improving services and quality to attract international students. Hence, universities need to carefully analyse key factors contributing to international students' satisfaction by developing strategies accordingly. Institutions need to provide quality service and environment for international students to ensure that they are satisfied with the services received while pursing their studies. Students who are satisfied will help to attract more potential students to the institutions through increased student loyalty, positive word of mouth (WOM) communication and image of the higher education institutions (Arambewela, 2003; Arambewela & Hall, 2006). Based on the literature review, this paper aims to present various factors contributing to international students' satisfaction. These factors are translated into variables to measure international students' satisfaction, which can be used as a guideline by higher education institutions.
Internationalisation of higher education; international students' satisfaction, students' satisfaction, higher education marketing
To think, in Islam, is actually to perform an act of worship ('ibadah) and it is the thinking that strongly induces one's belief, faith and personality. The failure to engage critical thinking with Islamic Worldview could expose Muslim students to the misconception of the thinking as to perceive it peculiar from the Islamic teaching. This paper aims to explore and reveal the epistemological concept of al-yaqin as part of the Islamic essential elements of critical thinking. Library research method is employed in addressing the issues of critical thinking from the Islamic perspective, where Muslim prominent classical works were reviewed and analysed inductively in order to come out with essential Islamic epistemological elements of critical thinking. The exposition of the concept is illustrated from the theoretical and methodological context al-yaqin and its implicit relation to critical thinking. The study signifies two edges of epistemological nature of critical thinking; from the data verification process to the conclusion state of a belief, which distinguish firm factual knowledge from vague assumptions. The findings of this paper distinguish critical thinking from the Islamic worldview to be advocated among Muslim students as an alternative to the existing modern concept of critical thinking.
Al-Yaqin, Epistemological concept of al-Yaqin, critical thinking
Engineers form an important part of our technical workforce to successfully transform Malaysia into a fully developed nation as envisaged in the Vision 2020 document. Thus, it is essential for higher learning institutions in Malaysia to produce effective and competent graduates who are able to contribute to the current needs and rapid changes in the engineering industry. However, a key challenge faced by engineering programmes is to address the misalignment in the graduates produced and the industry needs. To address this, industrial training in universities plays an important role in bridging academia and industry where students are able to experience real-life problems as opposed to only classroom challenges. In addition, it is also important that engineering students in universities are well equipped with critical thinking skills and strong technical knowledge to face current and future challenges in industries. In this study, feedback and evaluation forms from industries were analysed to explore the working competency of engineering students in a new engineering programme. It identifies aspects that call for improvement to successfully help engineering students' competency at workplace. This paper also offers a few suggestions on Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) based on the PlanDo-Check-Act (PDCA) model to improve strategies prior to, during and post industrial training for the betterment of this new engineering programme.
Continuous Quality Improvement, Engineering Education, Higher Learning Institutions, Industrial Training, Malaysia, Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) model, Working Competency
The need to write for scholarly publications has triggered many investigations into research articles published in reputable and indexed journals. This paper attempts to compile and provide a review of the complete rhetorical organisation of research articles, from Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results to Discussion sections, from several studies. Though the studies revealed a general pattern in the writing of these research articles, it was also noted that different disciplines adopt certain localised structures, which characterize the discourse of the disciplines. Thus, this paper calls for the discovery of local structures of research articles from more disciplines to cater for the growing demands for scholarly publications, especially amongst researchers, academicians and postgraduates.
Genre Analysis, Research Articles, Rhetorical Organisation, Corpus-based
This article reports how the notion of communicative competence was perceived by engineering students and engineers during 16 final year technical oral presentation sessions. Six sub-sets associated to linguistic and rhetorical competence such as brevity and terminology; confident, interactive and argumentative language; visual language; humour; formality, and exchange of questions are deemed necessary. There is, however, notable diversity in the participants' perception of the said notion. Engineers stressed contextualised real-world application presentation, while students were drawn toward academically inclined structured content based type of presentation. Implications of the study for English Language teaching in the ESL context are discussed.
Communicative Competence, Technical Oral Presentation, Linguistic and Rhetorical Competence, Oral Immediacy Competence
The purpose of this study is to investigate how learners perceive pronunciation and its importance in spoken English. The motivation for the study is the increasing unpopularity of the aspect of pronunciation in the ESL context which has caused lack of measures in improving learners' pronunciation skill despite being quite a concern among professionals in job environments that demands intelligible spoken English. The study specifically looked into the dimensions of students' perceptions towards accurate English pronunciation. The study employed survey questionnaires as data collection tool and the data were analysed statistically using SPSS and factor analysis. Based on the findings, four dimensions emerged in their perception for the importance of correct pronunciation in spoken English: 1) their awareness towards the importance of correct pronunciation; 2) concern on its accuracy; 3) level of achievement on their performance; and 4) the affinity for the effort to improve their English pronunciation in general. Overall, the findings suggested that the respondents have clear understanding of the concern for correct pronunciation in spoken English.
Competency-based performance, as part of competency assessment and measurement at the workplace, has gained much attention in the field of technical and vocational training and education (TVET), and human resource management (HRM). There is an increasing concern over competencies that are needed for successful work performance, as well as methods involved in the assessment and measurement of these competencies in the workplace. In today's contemporary world of work, the practice of competency assessment and measurement is required as it is a guide in evaluating the performance of employees. Assessment of competencies is a lens through which the levels of knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics needed to succeed in a job can be observed. Thus, an instrument measuring culinary competencies for superior performance at work that is reliable and valid needs to be established. From the literature reviewed, there have been few studies on the development of an instrument to measure vocational competencies, especially with regards to culinary competency among Malaysian chefs. Therefore, a preliminary study has been conducted to gain the perspectives of stakeholders in the Malaysian culinary industry regarding the need for this instrument. This paper presents the preliminary findings, which are the views of culinary educators and culinary professionals in the industry on the need for instruments to measure a chef's competency.
Competency assessment, instrument, culinary professional
While Malaysia is well known as an attractive destination for foreign direct investment (FDI), the country is also becoming a significant source of outward FDI (OFDI) as it has become a net exporter of capital since 2007. The increase in the outward investment may be due to the attractiveness of foreign host countries relative to Malaysia's domestic constraints. Consequently, outward investment may be used as one of the strategies to overcome domestic constraints in Malaysia. This paper examines the push and pull factors influencing Malaysia's investment abroad based on the country's top 15 destination countries that accounted for approximately 65 percent of Malaysia's OFDI from 2003 to 2011. The empirical determinants of OFDI, from the perspectives of pull and push factors, were tested using macroeconomic data in a gravity model. Since OFDI activities are still relatively new in Malaysia, this study is exploratory in nature. The value added of this paper is to fill the research gap by providing a more comprehensive understanding on the factors that drive OFDI from Malaysia compared to the relative attractiveness of Malaysia as a host economy. The findings in this paper indicate that Malaysia's outward investments are significantly influenced by relative market size, tax rates, openness, distance and cultural proximity. In addition, the results indicate that OFDI from Malaysia is likely to be horizontal or market seeking.
Outward FDI, Dunning's OLI eclectic paradigm, location advantages, gravity model, pull and push factors