One of the major goals of any high impact research and development is an overall improvement in the well-being and sustainable quality of life through innovations. As universities continuously disseminate innovations from R&D activities, many prototypes and lab-scale products, whether tangible or intangible, can be made available for public use. The success of bringing these innovations to the marketplace depends on the quality and capability of the technology transfer office to lead different types of activities, engagements, negotiation and inclusiveness towards fulfilling the needs of commercialisation partners and the market. This paper presented a general overview of transforming research output into commercialisation in the context of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Throughout this paper, different commercialization channels, the roles of technology transfer offices and multiple agencies are further discussed with a special focus on agricultural innovations and technologies. This review contributes to both academic and agricultural industry research, development and commercialization activities by illustrating current innovation produced by UPM and industry-university collaboration, conducted at a leading agriculture university.
Agriculture commercialization, innovation, research, technology transfer
The original meaning of the word khalwat refers to a pious act of being connected to God. It was later given a technical meaning referring to an offence. When the Shariah Criminal Offences Enactment introduced the offence of close proximity or khalwat, it was not a new invention because kheluat – as it was used to be spelt – can be traced back as far as 1909. khalwat is one of the 'moral offences' classified among the other offences against the precepts of Islam codified under the Enactment. The law relating to khalwat has attracted interest from many quarters, particularly due to claims that it encroaches on personal freedom and privacy. On the other side of the spectrum, the role and function of religious enforcement officers are also questioned, particularly surrounding the power they have when conducting investigations. This article seeks to examine how khalwat, originating from an act of piety, was then formulated into an offence involving a man and a woman being together in a private place to commit an indecent act. It also analyses the legal requirements that constitute khalwat and the challenges of its enforcement in Malaysia.
khalwat, morality, close proximity, moral offence, Islamic criminal law
There has always been a serious concern about students' academic performance in schools and institutions of higher learning. Mostly, it has been seen in terms of lack of motivation. However, little attention has been given to the reasons for poor motivation. The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) of motivation provides a new perspective on motivation. This paper investigates students' motivation and study engagement using the SDT framework. It examines the role of learning climate, intrinsic motivation resulting from basic needs satisfaction, self-perception of choice and self-awareness on students' study engagement. This study attempts to validate SDT propositions on students' motivation and study engagement in the Asian context and within an Islamic institution of higher education. Data were collected from 432 undergraduate students (Females = 62.2%) representing several study disciplines. Standardised instruments were employed to measure the constructs of learning climate, basic needs, perceived self-determination and study engagement. Results provided strong support for the SDT propositions suggesting that an autonomy supportive learning climate significantly contributed to intrinsic need satisfaction of autonomy, competence and relatedness. It was also found that the autonomy supportive learning climate and satisfaction of competency need contributed to greater study engagement. This study provides good empirical support to the SDT propositions from a non-Western cultural context.
Self-determination, Intrinsic motivation, learning climate, study engagement
Though various studies are available on the education, competence, professional prowess and dexterity exhibited by women in management and ample research has clearly indicated enhanced profitability and employee productivity in organisations with more women in managerial positions, their presence, especially at the highest hierarchical levels, remains grossly discouraging. Much water has flowed under the bridge since the gender equality trumpets reverberated the business corridors. Yet, a study in the December 2014 issue of Harvard Business Review stated that the disparity between the two sexes with respect to movement to top positions remained nearly intact and according to the recent International Business Report by Grant Thornton, 14% of women represented senior management in India, 24% globally and only 12% businesses had a female CEO. Surprisingly no noteworthy change has been observed and the figure remained almost the same in 2015, 2014, 2013, 2009 and 2007. Against this backdrop, the present paper aims at probing further into the reasons which stall the progress of women using a mixed method design. Without pointing fingers only at the male bastion, it also attempts a two pronged focus - the role of women themselves and the veracity of lack of support from other women in the workplace in thwarting their progress.
Customer complaining behaviour is universal and studies relating to it have received substantial attention over recent years. Customers expect fair treatment from service providers for the effort invested in the relationship. Perceived unfairness would make customers feel as though they have been betrayed. Hence, they are likely to express their dissatisfaction through complaining. In certain cases, they might also resort to exhibiting aggressive behaviour to compensate for the unfairness they experienced. This paper proposes a conceptual framework by investigating the effect of customer's dissatisfied service experience attribution (DSEA) on aggressive complaining and its motivation in achieving fairness of treatment in a business relationship. Through a review of relevant literature on this topic, this paper attempts to conceptualise the framework of customer retaliatory complaining behaviour (CRCB). Understanding the implications could help service providers create more robust strategies to overcome negative consequences. Such an understanding is likely to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on how dissatisfaction can be dealt with effectively as empirical evidence could now be established on the importance of dealing with retaliatory behaviours in the service industry.
The transition from school to work is a critical milestone in the life of young people and plays a crucial role in how their future careers develop. This transition is a complicated process which not only involves a change of identity from a learner to a worker, but also a transition from adolescence to adulthood where one's life planning is at stake. This paper examines the views of young Chinese in relation to career development in a society where East meets West. The study is a qualitative research with an in-depth semi-structured interview approach to explore the career concerns and issues faced by the post-80 generation in Hong Kong. Data is collected in audiotaped individual interviews with 10 young people aged 18 to 24. The sample is selected purposively in terms of their socio-economic backgrounds and thematic analysis is used to explore a number of key themes including ideas about career development, readiness for continuing education, constraints to career planning, gender differences in acceptance of cross-border work and overtime work, and single child problem for career development. The findings revealed insights on the career development of the post-80 generation and the interplay of ecological system in the Hong Kong context. Practical measures to facilitate a better transition to young adulthood were discussed in the paper as well. The insights from this study would be useful for human resource practitioners, policy makers and interested parties who together can jointly devise appropriate career interventions to assist young people in their transition to adulthood.
Career development, lived experience, post-80 generation, ecological system
It is believed that motivation to learn a language is strongly influenced by the target language, location and the learners. Nevertheless, the questionnaires administered in the Eastern countries are usually developed in a Western context to a culturally specific context; this means the original questionnaires are adopted or adapted to suit local conditions . This study aims to identify key motivational factors for learners and affirm the suitability of a set of adapted questionnaire namely Language Learning Motivation for Mandarin (LLMM), for a survey on foreign language learning. A total of 148 Malay students at a public university in Malaysia voluntarily participated in answering the LLMM questionnaire. The completed questionnaires were used in an exploratory factor analysis procedure to identify what motivates learners of foreign language. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation obtained five-factor solution; these motivational factors are: Requirement Motivation, Interaction and Better Understanding, Interest and Pleasure, Leisure and Entertainment,Future and Career. The study concludes that blended motivation with Requirement Motivation as the most influential factor. The study also suggests that LLMM questionnaire be replicated to other Asian learners who are learning Mandarin as a foreign language. This is to ascertain its validity and applicability to the learners of Mandarin as a foreign language in the Asian context.
Language learning motivation, Exploratory Factor Analysis, foreign language, Mandarin
Hostile and instrumental aggression are very popular among soccer fans, The goal of hostile aggression is just to cause harm to the target like rival fans while instrumental aggression refers to actions intended to harm another person with the goal of achieving a result, such as assisting their favourite team to win the match. The body of research on sport fans' violence shows that this aggression emerges through various social, psychological and situational factors. Thus, a few factors such as team identification, sport identity and team's performance are crucial but hardly considered in Iranian research. However, the purpose of this current research is to examine the impact of aforementioned factors on instrumental and hostile aggression in football stadiums. The paper uses the social identity theory and survey method for data collection. The results of Mann-Whitney U test among 356 male spectators from the Padideh football club, demonstrate that fans that have high sport and team identification, also have more willingness to commit hostile and instrumental aggression compared with those with low sport and team identification. The study also found that the fans with high sport and team identification show more hostile aggressive actions against their opponents and officials than the fans with low sport and team identification. The fans with high sport and team identification showed a greater trend to commit instrumental aggression against their opponents compared with fans who have low sport and team identification. There are no differences between high and low sport and team identification in instrumental aggressive actions toward officials. Further, the rate of hostile and instrumental aggression in losing a game is higher than winning one. Considering the hostile and instrumental aggression, the fans with low sport and team identification don't report any significant differences in winning/losing games. However, the fans with high sport and team identification indicate significant differences in winning or losing games with respect to hostile and instrumental aggression.
Iranian football fans, instrumental/hostile aggression, sport/team identification, team's performance
This study applies the stakeholder theory in understanding the importance of managing good relationships between stakeholders which are useful in establishing network capital for SMEs in practising business responsibility that puts emphasis on calculative, economic, rational and professional factors. This study aims to advance our understanding of how SMEs practise business responsibility by referring to the proposed model. This study was conducted to bridge the gap between the research approach that has been widely used by social capital theory and the stakeholder approach. An exploratory case study research methodology was applied to investigate the research problem. Data was collected from 30 semi-structured open ended interviews with owner-managers of SMES in Java Island, Indonesia. Findings of this study indicated that business responsibility relies on SMEs because there is a demand from important and primary stakeholders such as buyers, suppliers and customers for economic objectives. The results of this study showed the importance of strategic and legitimacy aspects in maintaining sustainability of small and medium business.
The courts are continuing to allow greater participation in the justice system by experts. Expert evidence is admissible in court whenever there are matters or issues which require their expertise in terms of observation, analysis, description and resolution. In medical negligence litigation, the 'Bolam' test is cited as the starting point. The test requires doctors to conform to a 'responsible' body of medical opinion. However, it has failed to define what a 'responsible' body of medical opinion is. The article aims to examine the role of expert evidence in medical negligence litigation cases. The scope of this article is limited to expert evidence in medical negligence litigation in Malaysia in the context of the standard of care required from doctors in the course of treatment, diagnosis and provision of information to their patients. The methodology is a legal, library-based research focusing mainly on primary and secondary sources. The findings indicate a need for reforms such as improving the quality of medical expert witness testimony by strengthening the qualifications for serving as a medical expert and providing more specific guidelines that govern the conduct of physicians throughout the legal process.
Bolam test, expert evidence, medical negligence, litigation, doctors, course of treatment, diagnosis
Having a good grasp of the English grammar is vital especially for students at the tertiary level as accuracy in speech and writing is highly important when engaging in academic activities. In the 21st century, also known as the digital age, pedagogical approach to teaching grammar is changing dynamically in relation to factors that encompass social, economic and technological entities. The traditional approach to teaching grammar using 'chalk and talk' is becoming irrelevant as technology pervades students' learning environment. Learning grammar via mobile phone is seen as a potential solution that will enable language learners to enhance their skills as they are digitally designed, flexible and mobile. This study facilitated the development of grammar modules for the purpose of a mobile learning reinforcement tool for English grammar, known as an intelligent mobile learning tool (i-MoL). Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with five ESL lecturers in order to gain an in depth perception on the feasibility of using grammar modules via i-MoL to promote the learning of grammar. Three themes were identified through phenomenological qualitative analysis. Lecturers perceived the grammar modules as having the potential to improve student proficiency in a flexible and convenient manner. The i-MoL could be both a barrier and motivator for learning grammar. Lecturers also reported that i-MoL could be a useful supplementary tool for them to deliver effective grammar lessons which engage students and motivate them to learn in an interesting environment. Findings suggest that grammar modules can be advocated via i-MoL for teaching and reinforcing student grammar learning.
English language, grammar, intelligent mobile learning tool, teaching, learning style, technology, ESL, Malaysia
This paper reports on the preliminary findings of an on-going study on the washback effect of the newly introduced school-based assessment (SBA) at the lower-secondary level in Malaysia. This study specifically investigates how the school-based assessment has affected the perceptions of students in relation to learning English as a second language. In addition, the study attempts to explore the students' responses to a call for change from a purely testing culture into a learning culture at the beginning of its implementation. The objectives of the study are therefore twofold: to gauge the washback effect on students' overall perceptions of SBA and external examinations and challenges of implementing School-based Assessment (SBA).Drawing on the data collected by means of questionnaires, it was found that the sampled students were equally pessimistic about external examinations and SBA. In addition, some barriers in implementing SBA as perceived by the students in the given context are reported. It is hoped that the findings of this small-scale study which was carried out after two years into the implementation of SBA, would contribute to a better understanding of the complex phenomenon of "washback" in relation to SBA in Malaysia.
Washback effect, school-based assessment, students' perceptions, English language, lower-secondary level, low-stakes, Malaysia
This study analyse the portrayal of Malala Yousafzai after her attempt of assassination by Taliban in the editorials of four Pakistani English newspapers, The News, Dawn, The Nation and Daily Times from October 10, 2012 to November 10, 2012. It also investigates how newspapers framed Taliban after attacking Malala. The study is theoretically linked with framing theory and conducts the comparative analysis of the editorials of four Pakistani leading newspapers. A total of 29 editorials (five in The News, six in Dawn, nine in Daily Times and nine in The Nation) were analysed. The findings depict that Malala was portrayed as a courageous girl who opposed the Taliban and their mindset against the girl's education in Swat valley. The findings also show that Taliban have a negative image in the Pakistani newspapers after their attack on Malala Yousafzai.
The main purpose of this paper is to determine mobile device ownership and online shopping preferences among shoppers in the Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Additionally, it seeks to investigate the awareness and acceptance of Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology as a preferred payment platform or method among online shoppers. This quantitative research is carried out via survey questionnaire on a sample size of 200 respondents who have shopped online with majority residing in the Klang Valley. The findings indicate online shoppers still prefer to conduct their online shopping transactions using a desktop Personal Computer. Respondents, regardless of race and academic qualifications, use the English language medium when shopping online and majority prefer to shop at an individual e-commerce website rather than a single website comprising many e-commerce websites such as deals.bigsale.com.my. Awareness on NFC technology for payment solutions is still at the infancy stage among many online shoppers in Malaysia with a low acceptance level mainly due to security concerns. This finding has implications on the communications strategies of mobile network operators, banks, Android and Apple-device manufacturers, online retailers and other key players in the telecommunications and technology industry. The latter need to play an active role in educating the public about NFC-enabled payment devices and convincing online shoppers on the security features of such mobile payment devices. In other words, more than just touting the benefits of NFC and explaining the technology, the communications strategy of all relevant players must focus on persuading and convincing their target audience on the security features for diffusion and adoption of the technology online shoppers in Malaysia.
Online shopping preference, M-payment, Near Field Communications (NFC)
Given the relationship between cultures of teaching and teacher professional development, this mixed methods research project documents and depicts a Thai university's teaching cultures and the extent to which cultures of teaching determine teacher professional development. An analysis of data collected demonstrates a lack of teacher collaboration within this particular workplace. The participating teachers rarely have opportunities to share and learn from colleagues. Indeed, teachers' practices of balkanisation, individualism, and contrived collegiality temper collaboration among these teachers. Further, relationship between cultures of teaching and teacher professional development in this workplace is evident. Notwithstanding a lack of collaboration, the participating teachers have abundant opportunities for professional development. Most of these opportunities are, however, administratively mediated. Despite such opportunities, these participating teachers do little to develop themselves.
Cultures of teaching, Teacher professional development, Collaboration, Contrived collegiality, Balkanisation, Individualism
This article discusses the ethnographic nature of audience studies and the practices of audience ethnography in Kampung Papitusulem, Sabak Bernam. Although ethnography has been adopted in the studies of media reception worldwide, it is not a popular methodological tradition among the media and communication researchers in Malaysia. However, considering the multicultural nature of the Malaysian population and media, audience ethnography should be considered as one of the practical methodologies in media and communication research in the country. Based on the empirical ethnographic research involving a group of Malay-Javanese women in Kampung Papitusulem, Sabak Bernam, this article presents the methodological issues of an ethnographic approach in studying Malaysian television audiences. The practice of audience ethnography in the kampung indicates that the methodology would likely be applicable in media audience research in rural Malaysia by considering practical data collection techniques including partial immersion of fieldwork, conversational interviews, and selected participant observation.
Audience ethnography, qualitative research, identity, television, Malaysia
The tremendous development of stylistics over the last four decades has brought about the growth of different approaches. As the essence of stylistics is integrating linguistics with literature, it has become a controversial subject particularly among literary critics and linguists. The dissension among scholars is a product of their own research in and therefore grounded in solid empirical study. Thus, the article discusses various approaches as reported in the stylistics literature along with their respective strengths and weaknesses. Thus, the paper attempts to shed some light on the controversies of stylistics in general as well as the various approaches.
In recent years, a number of scholars have raised concerns about the possible negative consequences of globalisation including the threat posed by its spread and the subsequent spread of English to native languages (Eckert et al., 2004; Mufwene, 2005). Within the Arab world this has been an increasing matter of concern since at least the post-2001 era, with the place of English in Arab societies a cause of popular and academic concern (Karmani, 2005; Azuri, 2006). Debate over threats to Standard Arabic however, are also informed by a number of additional factors including the language's diglossic nature and the deteriorating quality of Arabic education in schools. This paper explores the factors that both support and challenge the continued survival of Standard Arabic in the region. In order to examine this in an exploratory manner, 35 teacher and student native speakers of Arabic at Oman's only public university were administered a four-question questionnaire while 50 participants maintained a reflective journal. Results indicate that participants rarely used Standard Arabic in their daily lives although they believed the language would continue to survive in the foreseeable future. Potential challenges to Standard Arabic's survival were identified as including the increasing pace of globalisation and English's importance in both the international context and in Arab societies, while factors supporting its survival were mostly associated with Arabic's strong associations with Islam and Arab heritage. Implications of these findings for the language's survival are discussed.
Modern Standard Arabic, dialect, diglossia, globalisation, language replacement, language death
One of the main factors which enhance learning and teaching a foreign or second language is communication strategies applied by learners in the learning process and instructors in the teaching process. This study investigated the perception of Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) learners regarding the use of communication strategies in their English learning efforts. The study was also aimed at finding out if gender had an effect on the perception of learners regarding use of communication strategies. To do so, the researchers sampled 60 students and divided them into two groups, control and experimental group. Each group consisted of 30 students (15 males and 15 females). The researcher used Dornyei and Scott's (1997) inventory of CSs, which was a self-report questionnaire, as a data collection method. After analysing data by running a T-test statistical procedure, it was found that teaching communication strategies had significantly affected perception of the learners who reported more frequent use of communication strategies (mean for control group = 15.69; mean for experimental group = 19.93). Moreover, data analysed using a chi-square depicted that females outperformed males in the application of the communication strategies regardless of the treatment they received. The study indicated that teaching communication strategies to language learners, especially to males, is necessary. In fact, it can help the male learners to communicate more efficiently with their classmates and instructors and enhance their learning.
Gender effect, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Communication strategies, perception
In studying ethnic identity, researchers frequently have to choose one among the three main approaches seen as competing in social sciences and ethnicity studies, namely primordialist approach, constructivist approach, and instrumentalist approach. This article attempts to examine whether the three competing approaches should be treated as mutually exclusive or on the contrary, be jointly used to contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of ethnic identity. By using an ethnographic method with a phenomenological style and the relevant documents, in the context of the dynamics of Makeanese ethnic identity, the three approaches were found to support each other instead of competing. In this article, the elements of ethnic identity are shown to be partly primordial or given in a socio-cultural sense while others are socially constructed in accordance with the social transformation experienced by the Makeanese. The others - although based on primordial attributes and socially constructed processes - are made politically significant by the elite in the context of political competition. The theoretical implication of this finding is that all the three approaches - primordialist, constructivist and instrumentalist - should not be seen as competing or mutually exclusive approaches. In contrast, all the three approaches can jointly contribute to uncover the complex dynamics of Makean ethnic identity. This fieldwork supports the conclusion made by Chin and Lee (2010) that various theories of race and ethnicity should be seen as complementing instead of competing or substituting one another.
In the era of technology revolutionisation, universities have taken a huge step forward embarking on research, development, innovation and commercialisation. In order to successfully carry out these missions, a clear ownership of intellectual property generated at the university is crucial to avoid future disputed transactions. Thus, as part of the technology transfer framework at the university, institutional intellectual property policy has been developed as a guideline to ensure smooth and successful management of intellectual property exploitation. The generally practised ownership model of university intellectual property is university ownership compared with inventor ownership. This paper analyses legal authorities which allow a university to exert ownership over intellectual property created within the university, mainly the intellectual property law, contract law employment law and institutional intellectual property policy. Issues on how binding the institutional intellectual property policy of the university is on members are considered to ensure that the university claim over intellectual property is premised on legal perspectives.
Intellectual property, university intellectual property policy, university intellectual property ownership, university invention