In Malaysia not only are our classrooms often large but they also have a diverse, heterogeneous groups of students. Teachers nowadays face the greatest challenge in meeting the different learning needs of a diverse group of students. Thus, teachers need to recognise and realise the individual learning mode of all their students and to motivate them so as to maximise the learning progress and the achievements of these students. The learning preferences of learners are based on multiple intelligences. Students come with different abilities, skills and characteristics. Furthermore, students respond positively when learning is meaningful, personalised and relevant; thus, knowing what type of learners they are and the way they prefer to learn would greatly aid teachers in the classroom. Therefore, we need to diversify the curriculum to fit the needs of 21st century learners so as to enhance the teaching and learning process.
Differentiated instruction, differentiating in content, differentiating in process, differentiating in product, language styles, learning profile, Multiple Intelligences, SISC+
This paper investigates news media texts in the Malay- and English-language print media in Malaysia. We analyse 'hard news' reports covering the same story in Malay and English from the New Straits Times (NST) and Berita Harian (BH) . Kaplan's early studies on contrastive rhetoric (1966, 1987, 1988) suggest that cross-language differences in paragraph organisation may reflect differences in thinking or at least differences in writing conventions that are learnt in a culture. Thus, this study hopes to investigate to what extent this applies to Malay and English media texts. Using a modified CDA framework, a 'product' approach is applied in order to establish the degree of parallelism between the Malay and English media texts reporting the same story, and the degree of translation equivalence. A 'process' approach based on interviews is also used in order to discover the policies and processes involved in the construction of print media texts in both languages. The findings reveal that although there are commonalities in terms of structure and stance between the hard news texts found in both papers, there is some evidence of different stances adopted by the editors and journalists of the NST and the BH in terms of their inclusion of detail and their level of involvement or detachment in reporting crime and accident stories.
Critical discourse analysis, media discourse, cross-comparative analysis
The present research sought to investigate the relationship between organisational justice and the dimensions of job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The research method was descriptive, in general, and correlational, in particular. The population included all the 275 physical education teachers of the city of Khorramabad, Iran in the academic year 2013-14. Out of this population, applying Krejcie and Morgan's formula for Sample Size Determination, 162 individuals were selected, using stratified random sampling. The data collection instruments were Niehoff and Moorman's Organisational Justice Questionnaire and Wysocki and Kromm's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. The data were analysed by running the Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression. The results indicated that there is a positive and meaningful correlation between the components of organisational justice and dimensions of job satisfaction. Regression analysis showed that out of the components of organisational justice, distributive justice has the capability of predicting all dimensions of job satisfaction. Moreover, procedural justice has the capability to predict satisfaction with co-workers and their supervisors. Finally, interactive justice does not contribute to the dimensions of job satisfaction.
Previous literature indicated that people tend to have lower motivation and level of participation in e-training. This case study aims to shed light on the factors that contribute to employees' e-training participation. It examines the influence of personality traits i.e. computer self-efficacy and self-esteem and attitudinal disposition i.e. technology acceptance, job satisfaction and organisational commitment on employees' e-training participation. Results of the study indicate that all of the selected predictors were correlated positively with employees' participation in e-training. The three most dominant factors that influenced employees' participation in e-training were computer self-efficacy, technology acceptance and organisational commitment. The implications and conclusions of the study are clarified.
The present paper studies John Maxwell Coetzee's Foe (1986) from Homi K. Bhabha's standpoint which parodies the conventional definition of master and slave. Unlike the conventional view that the slave is a passive being under the ultimate dominion of his/her master, Bhabha, by parodying the Master-Slave relationship through his concept of 'ambivalence', reveals that in particular moments the slave shows resistance and, thus, is an active agent. In Coetzee's novel, Friday— Cruso's and later Susan's slave—through various forms of resistance, like silence and disobedience, not only abrogates all of her attempts to dominate him, but also obliges her to change her strategy of dealing with him. He, although a slave, not only refuses to communicate in any way with Susan, but also refuses to obey her commands frustrating her in every possible way. In the end, the paper concludes that the colonised—in the novel represented by Friday—is not a passive figure as pictured in various colonial sources; instead, he/she is an active figure and has a significant role in shaping the colonizer's strategy of dealing with him/her.
Ambivalence, cultural studies, stereotype, master-slave relationship, parody, Resistance, Subaltern
The purpose of the present study was to validate the Malay language version of the Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure (REMM-M) using a confirmatory approach. A total of 506 (females=373, males=133) university students with a mean age of 20 (SD=1.7) years old, participate in this study. Participants completed the REMM-M to measure their motives for doing recreational exercise. The REMM-M consisted of eight subscales, with 73 items measuring motives of respondents related to recreational exercise. The confirmatory factor analysis was tested on the REMM-M using the Mplus 7.3 software. We developed eight hypothesised measurement models of REMM-M based on each subscale. Therefore, there were eight measurement models with eight latent variables and the number of observed variables for each measurement model ranged from seven to 11. All the eight hypothesised measurement models were found not in good fit based on several fit indices. Therefore, several modifications were made iteratively, with theoretical support, to improve the measurement models. These modifications included deleting 22 low-loading items (< 0.50). The final measurement models were combined as one complete measurement model of REMM-M and the CFA results indicated fit based on several fit indices (SRMR=0.064 and RMSEA=0.049 (90% CI: 0.046 to 0.051), Clfit=0.832). The motive constructs' reliability of the final measurement model were acceptable, ranging from 0.683 to 0.867. The final measurement model comprised 51 items and eight subscales. Overall, 70% of the items were retained from the original English version of REMM.
The Tengger and Baduy tribes represent the tribal societies in Indonesia that hold a unique local religion. The existence of this local religion deserves to be protected by the nation to give comfort to its devotees when they worship according to their belief. This constitutional recognition and legal protection is stated in Article 28E Paragraphs (1) and (2) and Article 29 Paragraphs (1) and (2) of the Indonesian Constitution. This regulation is not complete and requires to be elaborated in several delegated legislations. The existing problem is to make space for the local religion to emerge with its own identity without being referred to any particular religion. At the implementation level, protection for local religion is not yet perfected. Therefore, regulation needs to be more widely implemented to guarantee protection for local religion in the Constitution.
Local religion, constitutional recognition, legal protection, socialisation
In recent years, English language teaching and research in the Sultanate of Oman has witnessed a significant increase in the emphasis upon critical thinking skills development alongside language proficiency. Fostering a perspective of commitment to teaching critical thinking skills in line with the English language courses, this paper reports on a study conducted at the Language Centre at Sultan Qaboos University. In particular, it explores English language teachers' conceptual definitions of critical thinking, their beliefs about the significance of critical thinking for language teaching and connections between critical thinking and language teaching methods. The results of the study's survey, supported by concrete examples from the classroom, suggest that the ultimate majority of those teachers (96%) recognise the central role played by critical thinking in effective language pedagogy. The results also indicate teachers' preference for aligning their teaching methods with the functional-communicative approach, related to Ennis' (2011) critical thinking categories. They also suggest a predisposition for employing practical aspects of critical thinking teaching methodologies in the English language classroom to more holistically prepare students for further academic studies and their future careers in the workplace.
Critical thinking, learner autonomy, Oman, problem solving, reflective thinking, skills for the 21st century
Hepatitis B infection is an upcoming health problem in Malaysia. HB vaccine coverage of infants in Malaysia was implemented by the Malaysian government in 1989. However, there is no compulsory vaccination programme for adults for HB vaccination. Currently, they have to protect themselves with a self-paid HB vaccination. The determinant of willingness to pay for HB vaccination is important to examine in order to estimate the economic benefit of high-burden diseases, such as HB. This study includes a few determinants identified by a literature review and an added new variable as risk behaviour to determine willingness to pay.
Health Belief Model, Hepatitis B, vaccination, willingness to pay
Quality of Work Life (QWL) is a philosophy on employees' organizational life satisfaction. Retention of experienced and trained employees is a challenging task for all organizations, especially for banking organizations. This research paper aims at identifying underlying dimensions of QWL program that shape employees' retention strategy in Private Commercial Banks (PCBs) in Bangladesh. The study is mainly based on primary data obtained through a structured questionnaire on 200 employees working at PCBs. Independent and dependent variables on a five - point "Likert -Type Scale" specifies how strongly the respondents agree or disagree with statements. Several statistical tools and techniques such as descriptive analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Zero Order Karl Pearson's correlation analysis and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) multiple regression analysis have been used to determine empirical findings and draw a conclusion. The findings of the study shows the effects which can impinge on employees' retention strategy with the dimensions (maintenance and supervisory) being particularly significant. The authority of PCBs in Bangladesh should address these dimensions to retain their experienced and trained employees.
Private Commercial Banks, Retention Strategy, Quality of Work Life and Maintenance Factors
Over the years, considerable success of the flipped classroom approach (FCA) has indicated its usefulness in teaching and learning. However, studies on how flipped classrooms engage students in writing remain limited in Malaysia even though the ability to write well is considered an important skill. Therefore, this quantitative study sets out to examine students' engagement in writing in a flipped classroom through a self-developed questionnaire based on a meta-construct developed by Fredericks et al. (2004). One hundred and eighteen students involved in a writing course at tertiary level participated voluntarily in the study. The findings suggest that FCA is able to engage students in the writing process as demonstrated by high means reported for all three constructs, namely emotion (3.88), cognition (3.95) and behaviour (3.96). This study recommends FCA to be employed in all areas of language learning and offers practical guidelines for instructors and learners to maximise the flipped classroom experience.
Lecture is a widely used teaching method in universities worldwide as an intellectual discourse for delivering new knowledge. The effectiveness of a lecture depends on the teaching tools used in facilitating the learning process. At the same time, course content plays an important role in determining the effectiveness of a teaching tool. The present paper reports a cross-sectional study on Engineering undergraduates' perception of whiteboard and PowerPoint lecturing in enriching their learning experience. Questionnaires were distributed to 67 Engineering undergraduates. Interviews were conducted with seven Engineering undergraduates and seven lecturers. The survey and interview data collected were subjected to quantitative and content-based analyses, respectively. The findings concluded that whiteboard and PowerPoint lecturing tools complement each other in technical courses.
Blackboard lecturing, engineering, PowerPoint lecturing, traditional teaching, whiteboard lecturing
This study investigates the relationship between the personality traits of extraversion-introversion and English as a Second Language (ESL) proficiency among 145 undergraduate Chinese students at VIT University, Vellore, India. It is one of the few studies in the subject area that is conducted in Asia and focuses on Chinese students studying in India. The data were collected using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Student Information Questionnaire (SIQ) and scores from the English Bridge Course (EBC) for Chinese students. After analysing the data using correlation coefficient and ETA values, it was found that extraversion-introversion had a significant relationship with different language learning skills. Students who scored high on extraversion were likely to score better in speaking skills and reading skills, whereas introverts tended to perform better in listening skills. Writing skills did not correlate strongly with either of the personality traits. While the results refute the claim that ESL academic superiority rests solely with extraverts, as proven by the higher listening scores of introverts than their extraverted counterparts, they also refute the conclusions drawn by psychologists and support the applied linguists' argument that extraversion is a positive trait for language learning. The paper concludes by suggesting that ESL instructors modify their teaching strategies, keeping in mind the various strengths of extraverted and introverted learners.
Extraversion, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), English as a Second Language (ESL), introversion, personality, second language acquisition
This paper analyses the impact of macroeconomic fundamentals and country specific determinants on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the United States of America (USA) and Malaysia from 1981 to 2013. Increased world integration, liberalisation and deregulation have reduced trade barriers in all countries across the world, allowing for vast growth in international trade and investment. In addition, negotiations on regional free trade agreements and the adaptation of favourable policies towards expansion of foreign investment in emerging countries have resulted in tremendous interest on the part of policy makers to compete for FDI that brings prosperity to these host countries. Empirical results conclude that while the rate of economic growth and domestic credit draw more FDI into the USA, changes in total trade and domestic interest rates have a significant effect on FDI flows into Malaysia.
Domestic credit, FDI, interest rate, international trade
Brand personality congruence is a concept not widely studied. The present study corrects this lack of knowledge of brand personality congruence by studying it via a service brand like KFC in the Quick Service Restaurant industry. Data were collected in two phases, first for a pilot study from a student sample with exploratory factor analysis applied to the data. Subsequently, data were collected from 473 KFC customers in the city of Bhubaneswar, India and tests like the confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modelling were applied to validate the conceptual model and estimate the path in the structural model. The findings of the study have practical implications for different service brands in the Quick Service Restaurant industry such as to design their products and services to match the personality of different target groups.
Brand personality congruence, confirmatory factor analysis, measurement model Quick Service Restaurant, Structural Equation Modelling
Human rights is an important subject in legal education. Human rights knowledge relates to awareness of the scope and content of human rights and the relationship of these rights to human dignity and survival. The principal elements of human rights are universality and equality and avenues to seek redress in the event of violation of human rights. Articles 1(5) and 1(10) of the ASEAN Charter state that the purposes of ASEAN are to generate a distinct market and invention base which is steady, affluent, highly competitive and improve human resources through closer collaboration in education and life-long learning. Since Malaysia is a member of ASEAN, this study was deemed important to assess the knowledge of future human rights advocates in Malaysia on human rights principles and mechanism for the protection and enforcement of human rights. It is also important considering the fact that Malaysia is a State Party to three international human rights treaties and some aspects of human rights are enshrined in its Federal Constitution. The study employs qualitative research design in achieving its objectives.
Education, future advocates, human rights, knowledge, Malaysia, public university
Compliance with ethical guidelines is strongly pursued in many organisations, be they public or private, profitable or charitable. The role of ethics is visibly significant when it comes to the standardisation of acts, professionalism and organisational interests, especially in Islamic institutions. Here, ethical concerns are determined by religious principles where the rules of ethical conduct are strongly emphasised. In this pursuit, organisations have established their own ethical codes; yet, inappropriate work conduct recurs. In the light of the issue, this paper identified the importance of the enforcement of codes of ethics and awareness and understanding of employees towards the codes as the catalyst towards the implementation of ethical codes at the workplace. To test the reliability of these factors, the study measured to what extent enforcement and employees' awareness and understanding influence their compliance with ethical practices and the depth of ethical practices among employees. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from several Islamic institutions in Malaysia, including professionals and support staff, to be involved in this survey. The findings from this research indicate that understanding of employees obtained a higher average mean score compared to the other two factors (enforcement and awareness of employees). The findings also reveal that two demographic factors had a significant relationship with the implementation level of the ethical code i.e. age and category of designation factors. Hopefully, the findings of the study can be used by managers in their effort to enhance the level of ethical practice among their employees, besides ensuring the practical implementation of ethical codes beyond merely following theoretical guidelines. Ethical practice must be promoted and implemented in order to contribute to the improvement of Islamic institutions.
Awareness, code of ethics, enforcement, factors of ethical behaviour, understanding
The threat posed by terrorism, a world-wide phenomenon, is not easy to address. Contributing to the difficulty of the task are the changing motivation of terrorist activities, their diverse sources of financing, the increasingly more destructive and dangerous methods of attack as well as their varied targets. Terrorism, thus, seems to require special measures to prevent and curb. Many countries have enacted new laws or have amended existing ones and these have common features relating to the investigation, apprehension and prosecution of suspected terrorists. A notable feature of such legislation is the detention of suspects without charge or trial and without the other constitutional safeguards accorded to a criminal. One such piece of anti-terrorist legislation is Malaysia's recent Prevention of Terrorism Act 2015 (POTA). This paper espouses the view that POTA is necessary to curb terrorism in Malaysia and analyses the new Act to identify its strengths and weaknesses in curbing acts of terrorism in the country with the view of recommending amendments thst would enhance its effectiveness as a piece of anti-terrorist legislation.
Internal security, Malaysia, Prevention of Terrorism Act, terrorism, terrorists
The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) is a 20-item questionnaire used to measure higher education students' deep and surface approaches to learning. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Malay language version of the R-SPQ-2F factor structure, based on two data sets of Malaysian pre-service teachers. The methods used were: (a) an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with an oblique rotation with the first data set (n = 221), and (b) a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the second data set (n = 231). The factor analytic results showed a four-factor model of the scale data which supported the scale's original factor structure but marked differences were found in terms of the relationships between items and factors (items had moved to different scales). Based on the EFA, the scales were renamed to better reflect the meaning of each factor, but the two main constructs of deep and surface approach remained the same. In the cross-validation study, the results of the CFA suggested that out of three structural models, the best fit was achieved by a first-order four-factor model. Explanation of the Malay language R-SPQ-2F re-specified factor structure for Malaysian pre-service teachers are discussed as it is important that researchers do not blindly import measures used in another culture without adaptation. Included are implications for the Malay language R-SPQ-2F.
Approaches to learning, deep and surface learning, Malaysian pre-service teachers, Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) cross-validation, teacher education
Literature, as a reflection of the writer's private and stereotyped representations about different cultures, influences readers' worldview. Authors with bimental thinking model in their oeuvre of situations based on a multicultural behaviour or perception. The objective of this paper is to analyse the personality of bimental writers and features of their poetics, to determine conditions under which the works of an author generate multicultural competence among readers and to build a technique of studying literature within multicultural education. The social and political situation in the country of residence, as well as biographical facts, directly affects an author's bimental thinking. The author is able to identify a lyrical character with members of other ethnic groups, as he or she is familiar with situations involving customs, traditions and other languages. The readers choose the literature based on these criteria and which can in turn influence their perception of other cultures contributing to multicultural education.
Bimental thinking, multicultural competence, national identity, Russian literature
In a patriarchal society, like India, women live a very underprivileged life. In order to improve the condition of women, the government of India has adopted the strategy of Self Help Groups (SHGs). In this study, an attempt is made to analyse the role SHGs play in the empowerment of Indian women. The SHG is the association of 15-20 members of the same socioeconomic background working collectively to solve problems on the principle of self-help, harmony and mutual coordination. In this study research was conducted on 125 respondents from SHG group and Non-SHG group to facilitate comparison. The results indicate that SHG strategy helps in the empowerment of women.
Linear growth faltering is a chronic form of malnutrition which is more serious in children due to its irreversible nature. The aim of this study is to investigate socioeconomic and demographic determinants of linear growth among children under the age of five in Nepal. The 2011 data were obtained from the Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS). The linear growth (Height for Age Z score) of 2,330 children was examined. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine associated factors of linear growth. Results indicated that the children's linear growth was affected negatively due to various contextual factors including varied socioeconomic status, the mother's educational attainment and height, geographical region and place of residence. The poorest households, older children, mother's illiteracy and living in a rural area were found to be negatively associated with linear growth.
Height for Age Z score, linear growth, Nepal, under-five years of age
The aim of this study is to find out if structure shifts exist in the translation of the inter-sentential conjunctive relations in the novel, Animal Farm, from English into Hausa, based on Catford's (1965) notion of shifts in translation. The two novels used as the sources of data for this study were the source text in English, Animal Farm, and its target language translation in Hausa, Gandun Dabbobi. Two hundred and fifty-two sentences containing inter-sentential conjunctive relations were extracted from each text, making the total number of 504 sentences from both texts. Halliday and Hasan's (1976) Table of Conjunctive Relations was used to identify the different conjunctive relations. The effects of the shifts on the target language were also studied and explained in the data. This was done using Nida's (1964) theory of formal and functional equivalence. The study found that there are seven forms of structure shifts in the translation of conjunctive relations from English into Hausa. This study also revealed that all the categories of conjunctive relations i.e. additives, adversatives, causal and temporal were shifted in the translation but their shifts differed between one class of conjunction to another.
The National Education Blueprint (2013-2025) is grounded based on high-performing systems which promote a transformation of the Malaysian education system in line with the vision of Malaysia's National Philosophy in achieving educational outcomes which are of world-class status. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) impacts on the efficiency of promoting higher-order thinking skills (HOTs) as it provides a platform for educationists with clear educational objectives to share ideas and collaborate on ways to enrich the learning experiences of students. Now, the important question, how is this integration working out for Malaysian university students and educators? This exploratory study aims at gaining deeper insights into the current learning practices used by both university teachers and students, the types of ICT used in their classes, their views on the integration of these skills into the curriculum and also the application methods of teaching and learning using ICT to promote HOTs. Data were collected using purposive sampling where 199 participants were selected to take part in the study. These respondents were a group of English major undergraduate students from several faculties in a public university in Malaysia. This study shows that the students' experience in their degree programmes have revealed several successes, as well as poignant challenges, related to the use of ICT in inculcating higher order thinking skills among learners. The implications of this study suggest several important insights on the potential opportunities of technologies in facilitating higher order thinking but success lies on the tasks that are appropriately designed for higher order thinking in the content.
English major students, higher-order thinking skills, information and communication technology
The purpose of this research was to examine the fixed and random effects of risk management on higher education students' activities at the student and faculty levels of analysis on their life skill development. It aimed to examine the relative impacts of the variables at the micro and macro levels. This study utilised the quantitative survey design using two types of questionnaire. A total of 588 samples consisted of 142 at the macro level and 446 at the micro level. The hierarchical linear model (HML) analysis was utilised to test the fixed effect and random effect of the null model, simple model and hypothesis model. The findings indicated that all the faculties had implemented their risk management higher than the average level. Findings of HML analysis indicated the total mean score of the students' life skills differed from one faculty to the other to another and could be used to explain the students' life skills. In addition, there were three independent variables, namely, gender, being a first-year student and being a Fine and Applied Arts student that could explain the prediction coefficient of the first level at 5.18%. At the micro level, the fixed effect analysis showed that the students' life skills parameter was 3.902, which was significant at 0.01. The macro-level independent variable in risk management of providing knowledge and skills as well as gender had a prediction coefficient of 48.6% and 18.2% to students' life skills, respectively. In addition, the variable for first-year students and third-year students had a negative prediction coefficient of 18.2% and 19.6% to their life skills, respectively. Finally, the independent variable of risk management on providing knowledge and skills had an impact on the students' life skills at 77.77%. The findings contribute significantly to the body of knowledge and propose a more accurate estimation of life skills development thus promote better policies and practices at the university level.
Risk management, student characteristics, life skills
Industrial training is a compulsory subject that has to be taken by all chemistry students in the School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The objective of the study is to identify the marketability of UKM Chemistry students from three different programmes based on the perception of industrial training supervisors. One hundred and eighty industrial supervisors evaluated the students at the end of the training by means of a set of questions that covered attitude, managerial skills and technical skills. SPSS and the Rasch model were used to analyse the data from two consecutive years. Overall, all the students from three different programmes did well and met the evaluation criteria in both years. However, innovation and problem-solving skills need to be improved. Therefore, subjects to improve soft skills should be introduced into the curriculum.
This paper explores the morphosyntax of causative construction in Sudanese Arabic. The theoretical framework of this study was based on the Minimalist Programme (Chomsky, 1993, 1995). This construction is projected by the causative verb, which is itself derived via a particular morphological process. It is universally assumed that all predicates fulfil their lexical-semantic requirements e.g. displaying their argument/thematic structure, in their syntactic structure (e.g. VP shell). The analysis of causative construction involves the presence of the head CAUSE, which is morphologically realised on the verb. The presence of CAUSE requires the obligatory presence of an external argument (causer). Semantically, CAUSE is a functional head that signifies the meaning of the causative to that particular linguistic expression. Overall, Sudanese Arabic projects use the causative morphologically via germination of a second consonant. The derived causative is a lexical causative with respect to many syntactic examinations. Therefore, the typological difference between Sudanese Arabic and other languages is due to the implications of Universal Grammar theories, in particular principles and parameters.
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is regarded as an important vehicle to assist undergraduates' employability skills, knowledge, and attributes that can add value to their learning, career aspiration and employability. There is limited research on the outcomes of WIL programmes in terms of undergraduates' personal and psychological attributes, and motivation to learn. This study examines the relationship between self-management and interpersonal skills, self-confidence, and motivation to learn through a survey of 383 business degree undergraduates from five Malaysian public universities who have participated in various WIL programmes. Results show that the students' motivation to learn is influenced by their self-management and interpersonal skills and mediated by their self-confidence. This finding provides a valuable insight into the outcomes of WIL programmes such as personal and psychological attributes and motivation to learn in order to ensure the effectiveness of WIL programmes in producing employable and lifelong learning graduates.
Interpersonal skills, motivation to learn, self-confidence, self-management skills, work-integrated learning
The study aims to explore the relationship between the perceptions and the practices of folk medicines among youths in Pakistan. The quantitative research method was adopted to achieve its objectives. Structured questionnaires were distributed to respondents to collect data. The respondents are youths whose ages ranged from 18 to 25 years and they resided in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version 13). The result shows that Pakistan youths have limited knowledge of folk medicines, and do not have a positive perception of it. A majority of them know the importance and usage of folk medicine but do not know how to prepare it and where to get it. Findings show that a lack of educational awareness about folk medicines has a strong impact on folk medicine practices. Pakistani youths mostly prefer medically specialised doctors compared to those who practise folk medicine, which they perceive to be slow in curing illnesses. It is recommended that folk wisdom about traditional healing practices be transferred to the next generation by their elders as well as via education-based awareness campaigns.
The way a tax auditor deals with taxpayers can give an impact on audit settlement outcomes. Qualitative studies show that tax auditors often use the conciliatory style as a strategy to resolve disputes because it expedites audit settlement and promotes long-term compliance. However, there is no study that has empirically examined the factors that influence tax auditors' conciliatory style. This study aims to examine the influence of personal characteristics i.e. attitude towards achieving goals, experience and ethical ideology on tax auditors' conciliatory style in resolving audit settlement disputes. Six hundred and thirty-six questionnaires (63.6% of response rate) were usable for data analysis. The results revealed that all the personal characteristics surveyed significantly influenced tax auditors' conciliatory style. This study can extend the literature on tax auditors' behaviour and facilitate the Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia in better understanding their auditors.
Conciliatory style, dispute resolution, enforcement regulatory style, Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia, personal characteristics, tax auditors
This paper reports evidence to support the insight that the impaired financing problem is highly likely connected to low staff efficiency in MENA country Islamic banks. Several macro and micro factors widely used in banking research are used along the measure of staff efficiency as the intervening factor to identify banking performance under impaired financing conditions. It is reasonable to assume that if staff do not work efficiently (for example for lack of skill), bank performance ought to be seriously affected; hence, staff efficiency would have a moderating effect when this factor is added to eight bank-specific factors. Impaired financing to total financing, as a ratio, is a proxy for impaired financing condition. Financial data are accessed for 22 banks from MENA countries covering the recent nine years to 2013. Applying a random effect model, we identify seven factors as significant contributors to performance. Next, by applying a hierarchical regression model, our tests reveal staff efficiency is a significant moderating factor. The result provides statistical support for the Resource-Based Theory, which suggests banks could reduce their impaired financing significantly by increasing staff efficiency. This is a new and significant finding on the linkage of finance with staff efficiency as a factor.
This paper reports significant new findings on banking performance by relating (i) 7 bank-specific measures, (ii) 3 non-bank-specific measures with (iii) time dummy variable as control for financial crisis in the test period. The findings concern the performance of a new type of bank called the 'participation bank'. Participation banks price their funding through profit-sharing contracts with customers, so deposit and lending costs are decided not on the basis of market interest rates as in the case of mainstream banks. A sample of 100 participation banks covering 25 countries were selected for this study over the financial years 2007-2015. We used a new measure equivalent to the net interest margin called 'profit share margin', which has not been previously used to study banks. In fact, no study using participation banks has been carried out as yet. The dynamic panel GMM procedure was applied to obtain robust estimators; this is a refined econometric method that is also seldom applied in banking studies. The results revealed that 6 bank-specific factors statistically significantly affected the performance of participation banks in the test period. The paper also reports that the practice of including non-bank-specific factors as possibly relevant for performance is questionable as these were not found to be significant. The findings were from both OLS and GMM panel regressions providing comparison statistics with some past studies.
Bank performance, bank-specific factors, generalised method of moments, macroeconomic factors, participation banks, JEL Classification: G20, L20