Discussing the strategies to improve and maintain the quality of education has been the concern of various education stakeholders. This paper offers a comprehensive review on Educational Effectiveness Research (EER), which provides theory-driven and evidence-based information on what and how to improve the educational context. Several key words such as EER, factors influencing student outcomes, and the dynamic model of educational effectiveness research are used to find relevant literature. The dynamic model considered to be the most influential theoretical construct in the field has four levels: the national, the school, the classroom, and the student level. The classroom level is emphasized while the national and school levels are expected to provide necessary conditions for the effectiveness of the classroom level. There are eight factors in the classroom level and the teaching skills included in these factors could be divided into five stages, ranging from easy to more difficult skills. This paper suggests there is a need to improve education through teacher improvement programs, and five stages of teaching quality in the dynamic model is used to offer individually-tailored teacher development programs. In this way, school improvement efforts could offer a space for testing theories derived from EER. Finally, it is important to include student non-cognitive outcomes as parameters to measure the effectiveness of education, yet future studies should attempt to identify specific and measurable variables belonging to non-cognitive outcomes that are clearly attributed to schools.
Educational effectiveness research, educational improvement, teacher development program, the dynamic model of educational effectiveness research
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between corporate governance, namely board independence, board size, and managerial ownership, with firm investment efficiency. Top 200 public listed companies in Malaysia according to market capitalisation from 2009 to 2011 were selected as a sample for the study. Level of investment efficiency was determined based on deviation from expected investment using the investment prediction model as a function of revenue growth. Board independence is measured by proportion of independent non-executive director of the board while board size is based on total number of directors of the board. Managerial ownership was calculated based on percentage of share owned by the executive director over the total number of shares issued by the company. Size of firm was computed based on total assets used as a control variable. Binomial logistic regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses. The study found that only board size influenced the level of investment of the company, while board independence and managerial ownership prevent inefficiency pertaining to investment decision making. The results confirm the role of corporate governance in enhancing the performance of the company, particularly the role of the board size in protecting the interest of the shareholders.
Investment, corporate governance, board independence, board size, managerial ownership, Malaysia
Pre-marital pregnancy among teenagers poses a serious and widespread health and social problem especially among those aged between 10 and 19. This study aims to find out the extent to which this out-of-wedlock childbearing by a teenager is associated with exposure to sexually explicit material or pornography. It is hypothesised that frequent exposure to sexually explicit material or pornography could have an association with an increased rate of teenage pregnancy. This is a case-control study where pre-marital pregnant teenagers between 12 and19 years were selected (as the cases) from government shelters throughout Malaysia, and non-pregnant teenagers were randomly selected from several secondary schools around Kuala Lumpur (as the control). A total of 114 pre-marital pregnant teenagers and 101 non-pregnant teenagers participated in this study. Participants from both groups completed a questionnaire about their frequency of exposure to pornography. Pre-marital pregnant teenagers were almost ten times more likely to have had frequent exposure to pornography compared with non-pregnant teenagers (OR = 9.9 [CI 4.3 - 22.5]). Hence, frequent exposure to pornography was shown to have a significant association with pre-marital teenage pregnancy.
This ecological study aims to examine the pattern of Age Standardised Mortality Rate (ASMR) among the states within Malaysia and its relationship with Gross Domestic Product (GDP), population density and age. In addition, the five-yearly patterns of ASMR for a fifteen-year period between 1995 and 2010 were studied. Death data from the National Registration Department (NRD), Malaysia and other important statistical data (i.e. data on GDP and population density) from the Department of Statistics, Malaysia from the same period were also analysed. It was found that GDP has a strong negative correlation with ASMR (Spearman's rho coefficient=-0.543, R2=0.295); however, the strength of correlation between population density and ASMR is very weak (Spearman's rho coefficient=-0.084, R2=0.008). Those states with higher ASMR generally have higher proportion of elderly people. In addition, states with higher GDP Malaysia showed decreasing trend of ASMR from 1995 to 2010. It can be concluded that in Malaysia, states with a higher level of ASMR have lower GDP and a higher proportion of the elderly.
Age Standardised Mortality Rate, elderly people, Gross Domestic Product, Malaysia
This paper examines the effect of work-life balance from the perspective of work-to-family conflict (W-FC) and work-to-family enrichment (W-FE) in relation to job satisfaction among academics in Malaysia. A survey method using self-administrated questionnaire was adopted to gather data from 307 respondents. Results were analysed using AMOS 23 and SPSS23. Findings showed that all W-FC and W-FE dimensions were significantly correlated with job satisfaction. However, for direct effect result, only W-FE capital significantly affected job satisfaction whereas none of W-FC dimensions found to have had an effect on job satisfaction. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on work-life balance and job satisfaction among Malaysian Research University academics. The findings provide useful information for university academics and human resource practitioner for future organisational improvement and policy development.
Work-to-family Enrichment, Work-to-family Conflict and Job Satisfaction
The monthly factor premium time series for the three factors (market, size and value) in the Fama-French three factor model in India are found to be stationary for period April 01, 1991 till March 31, 2015. The stationarity behavior for the time series is inferred from a visual examination as well as by use of the Augmented Dickey Fuller test (Said & Dickey, 1984; Said, 1991; Fuller, 2009), the Phillips-Perron test (Philips & Perron, 1987) and the KPSS test (Kwiatkowski et al., 1992). Thus. it can be inferred that the investors' return expectations from the overall market have not changed in spite of tremendous developments in the Indian economy and the transformations in the Indian stock market during the study period. It could also be noted that the Granger causality tests involving the market risk premium, size and value premium showed that size premium Granger causes value premium. This implies that at least a part of variation in stock returns due to value could possibly be explained by size.
Fama-French three factor model, size premium, value premium, stationarity, stationarity tests (ADF, PP, KPSS), Granger causality
Considering the contributions of Micro-Small-&-Medium Enterprises (MSME) for a regional-economy, an empirical study of 213 MSM entrepreneurs in Odisha, in eastern-India, was conducted to validate and verify various causal-relationships of socio-economic factors associated with 'entrepreneurial-intention'. Women constituted 25% of the respondents. The study evaluated their post-facto motivation factors. It also studied gender-gap in the field of entrepreneurship and examined the differences in motivation level between genders towards entrepreneurship. The study found women take up business as the 'second income' source and for 'social wellbeing'. The findings indicated that entrepreneurial intent is related to the following factors: prior knowledge of business functions, source and evaluation of the business idea, efficacy, ability to measure business performance and satisfaction derived from entrepreneurial effort. However, intent is not related to social support, work experience, substantial wealth, starting team size and differentiation in business.
This paper delves into the morphological features of Siquijodnon-Cebuano language. Using descriptive research methodology and adapting the linguistic theory, Contextualisation Lexicalisation, the study broadly examines free morphemes, bound morphemes and other morphological features of the Siquijodnon language. Qualitative data were taken from written folk literary works, documentaries, transcripts and oral traditions of selected Siquijodnon folks/informants who were chosen through convenient purposive sampling. They were gathered through snowball and/or Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal (PRRA), interview and videotaping. The units of analysis include the linguistic morphological features: free morphemes, bound morphemes and other morphological phenomena of a language. The data were analysed in the framework of Congruent Lexicalisation and interpreted through interpretive analysis. The research instrument is an interview guide. Considering the aforementioned findings, it is concluded that Siquijodnon-Cebuano is a rule-governed language, which certainly shares a number of morphological features with English and other prevalent languages or dialects. The results also manifest the essential contribution of affixation in establishing inflectional bound tense-marking morphemes and derivational bound from class-marking morphemes. They further conclude that Siquijodnon encounters with other language speakers, brought about by colonisation, greatly influenced the morphological development of their language. Hence, the Siquijodnon language is a twinskin of Siquijor Island's local identity, which likewise holds a utilitarian significance for its folk literary, historical, cultural and socio-cultural heritage and development..
Morphological features, other morphological phenomena, Philippines, social sciences
It has been suggested that the use of English among Malays is constrained by the intertwining of ethnic identity, religion and native language. This study investigated the possibility of a 'third space' (Bhabha, 1994) for a group of Malay-speaking English majors in an English-medium university in Malaysia. Using Norton's (2013) identity approach to second language acquisition, it found that the participants' identities as ethnic Malays and Malay-English speaking bilingual were often conflicted as the broader community was disinclined to use English. Despite high motivation levels, dominance of the Malay language curtailed the participants' investment in English to a great extent. The third space, when available, was confined to sites that were associated with their formal learning of English.
Bilinguals, third space, learners' identity, use of English
The relationship between academic dishonesty and personal beliefs and values has been studied in many Western countries. However, the relationship between these variables have not been widely examined among higher education students in Malaysia. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of personal beliefs and values, which consist of idealism, relativism and religious faith, on undergraduate students' academic dishonesty. A total of 2447 undergraduate students from four research universities in Malaysia participated in this study. The findings revealed that personal beliefs and values are significantly related to academic dishonesty. This study also indicated that idealism and religious faith are negatively related with academic dishonesty. Meanwhile, no significant relationship exists between relativism and academic dishonesty. Furthermore, the study found, after controlling for social desirability, idealism is the highest contributor to academic dishonesty. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that idealism and religious faith are important deterrents to academic dishonesty.
Academic dishonesty, personal beliefs and values, unethical behaviour, idealism, relativism and religiosity
Sanskrit and Arabic are the first and second largest donor languages to the Malay language respectively. From a vocabulary survey of 30 Malay words of Arabic and Sanskrit origins, this study examined the utility of a comparing Malay loanwords and their Nepali equivalent in teaching Malay to Nepali speakers. The participants were 25 Nepali speakers working in Kuala Lumpur. They averaged 23.16 correct answers and learned 11.32 new vocabulary items. At a 5% confidence level, a significant difference was found between the participants' scores before and after the presentation of the equivalent Nepali words (p = 0.000). This study concluded that presenting Arabic and Sanskrit loanwords in Malay and their related Nepali equivalent could assist Nepali speakers in learning Malay.
The development of reading habits and the detrimental effects of its decline are intriguing issues to the proponents of reading. Findings or related research around the globe have resulted in discomforting outcomes, giving an indication that the habit is now facing a challenging period. However, an interesting phenomenon observable is that despite the unfavourable circumstances, there are individuals who are avid readers. This case study attempts to gather in-depth information on what motivates and influences private higher education institution students to become avid readers. Employing qualitative methods, information from two informants were analysed for essential clues on how motivation to read could be catalysed and sustained. Eleven major themes, namely, enjoyment, self-development, self-initiative, social support, reading friendly environment, unfriendly reading environment, reading motivates reading, curiosity motivates reading, author attraction, alliteracy awareness and spiritually motivated, surfaced from the analysis and they could prove invaluable towards the development of strategies to inculcate the reading habit.
This study examines a text-based, asynchronous online forum discussion among English language teacher trainers who were involved in a two-week online professional development course. It investigates the participants' negotiation of meaning routine when they come across new content related item and describes the pattern of this negotiation of meaning routine. A textual analysis method, employing Smith's (2003) expansion of Varonis and Gass Model (1985) for negotiation of meaning, was utilised to analyse the discussion threads. The analysis revealed that the participants did engage in negotiation of meaning and all the four negotiation of meaning steps (trigger, indicator, response and reply to response) were evident. It was also revealed that content triggers, local indicator, elaboration in responses and task appropriate response were frequently used. As the application of CMD for teaching and learning is increasing, findings of this study could inform educators about the kind of strategies that could enrich online interaction.
Computer Mediated Discussion (CMD), Online Forum Discussions (OLFD), Negotiation of Meaning (NOM)
People generally see finance as anything that can be associated with the economic situation of the family. Thus, managing finances among individuals may result in satisfaction or dissatisfaction towards their financial situation, which is called financial well-being. Previous research regarding financial well-being has largely focused on factors such as financial stress, financial knowledge and financial behaviour. However, influences by the locus of control and work environment on financial well-being were little explored. Thus, this research studied the factors affecting financial well-being among public employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia. This study is a quantitative study using a set of online structured questionnaire to obtain the necessary data. A total of 207 completed questionnaires, out of 316 responded questionnaires, were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. The results indicated that financial stress, work environment, locus of control and financial behaviour were significantly associated with financial well-being. In addition, financial stress was the strongest factor affecting financial well-being followed by work environment. At the end, the outcome of this study can be used for a better understanding of employees' financial behaviour, which can be enhanced through financial education at the workplace.
Financial behaviour, financial knowledge, financial stress, financial well-bring, locus of control, work environment
Fay Weldon's The Life and Loves of a She-Devil deals with the nature of the hysteric psychological state women in abusive relationships or situations may suffer from and how they may react in either passively relenting to these conditions or taking control of their lives to achieve change. Thus, the question is raised as to whether the hysteric condition may be used as a means to an end. Women's Freudian hysterical symptoms are often physically manifested by anorexia nervosa, loss of speech (muteness), disturbed sleep, and alienation, among other maladies which may be subsumed under the category of symptoms of Freudian hysteria. Such symptoms, according to Freud, appear as the consequences of sexual violations a subject may have encountered, resulting in the manifestation of psychological disturbances characteristic of hysteria. This paper aims to investigate Fay Weldon's The Life and Loves of a She-Devil from Freud's theoretical perspectives on hysteria in order to indicate the influences of hysteria and its symptoms and reactions, focusing on the actions taken by the heroine of the novel under discussion to actualise herself.
Fay Weldon, Freud, hysteria, subjectivity, The Life and Loves of a She-Devil
Malaysia has been experiencing a dearth in mental health resources. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (GCBT) has been an established form of treatment for unipolar depression. The objectives of the current study were to examine the effectiveness of using GCBT for the treatment of depression in Malaysia. A total of 174 participants suffering from unipolar depression were recruited and randomly allocated to one of GCBT+Treatment as Usual (TAU), Relaxation training+TAU, or TAU only treatment groups. The participants were between 18-60 years of age. The participants in the GCBT+TAU group received eight Group CBT sessions of over a span of two months. The participants receiving Relaxation+TAU treatment received eight relaxation training sessions over a span of two months. The participants in the TAU only treatment group received treatment as usual from their psychiatrists. The BDI-M, ATQ-M, ATQP-M and DAS-M were administered at pre-treatment, mid-treatment (week 4) and post-treatment. Repeated Measures MANOVA showed a significant interaction effect between treatment group and time for BDI-M, ATQ-M, ATQP-M and DAS-M. Results showed that GCBT+TAU was able to significantly reduce depressive symptoms, negative cognitions and beliefs. Moderate effect sizes for the BDI-M scores, as well as significantly reliable and clinical change, were also found. The current study was limited by geographical boundaries, where only hospitals in and around the greater Klang Valley area were sampled. Results from the current study suggest that GCBT is effective in reducing the symptoms of depression in a Malaysian setting.
GCBT, RCT, depression, Malaysia, treatment, relaxation
The matter of community is of growing importance and intensively promoted in the development field through strengthening the concept of capacity. This paper aims to examine the dynamics of social transformation and their meanings for community capacity in Aceh province. The author points out the three phases of major social transformation, namely, the collapse of the social structure of local community under the centralist regime in the late 70s, following the isolation and high-tension period during the armed conflicts, and the post tsunami Aceh autonomy. The author argues that during these periods, community capacity has gradually declined in political-economic and socio-cultural terms. The post-reconstruction processes have raised awareness of living together in the community, providing a basis for institutionalising local governance, even though the capacity still remains weak due to the absence of local institutions and collective mechanisms due to three decades of changes concerning in national-local power relations and the consequent erosion of the social cohesion. In this paper, the author empirically discusses why and how the community has lost its collective mechanisms, especially during the recent social transformation, and how capacity has declined, focusing on gampong as the fundamental socio-spatial organisation at the local level, based on his fieldworks in the districts of Pidie, Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh.
Social transformation, community changes, development capacity, post-tsunami Aceh
The correct use of linguistic features of authorial identity has been found to be a problem for novice writers and non-native writers when writing research articles. This research aims to find out the linguistic elements that the native English and Thai writers use to express their stance in their research articles (RAs), and to describe how the native English and Thai writers express their stance in their RAs based on their socio-cultural background. The results, based on the frequency analysis of 30 RAs, showed that the native English writers in Applied Linguistics (AL) field used slightly more hedges and epistemic stance words, while the Thai writers employed slightly more attitude markers, as well as attitudinal stance words. In term of boosters, the native English writers were found to use twice more boosters than the Thai writers. Another remarkable difference found is in the use of self-mentions; the pronouns I-we were used eight times more by the native English writers than the Thai writers. The contextual analysis further showed that the native English writers were overt when promoting their authorial involvement through the use of stance markers, while the Thai writers' use of stance markers was intended to achieve rhetorical functions that fade degrees of authority. Implications of the findings for the instruction of academic writing are proposed.
Authorial identity, linguistic features, research articles, native English writers, Thai writers
Eugene O'Neill has always attracted criticism for his biased portrayal of women characters in his plays. Women have been portrayed solely from the male point of view and O'Neill is not alone in this as this lopsided depiction of women is as old as patriarchy. O'Neill's short poem "Sentimental Stuff, thus becomes an enigmatic expression of the traditional male and emancipated female voice in a typical courtship setting. The poem under consideration, unfolds like a well-crafted drama wherein we witness the frustration of a male poet when his beautifully written poetry fails to pleases his lady love. The male poet cannot think beyond the sensuous charms of his ladylove whereas the woman concerned wants to be appreciated for her wits rather than physical beauty. This paper places this contrast under the wider ambit of feminist criticism, where the male gaze is dissected using the concept of ekphrasis and the latent patriarchy in supposed romantic poems is exposed. The paper also deconstructs the poem to bring out various ways of objectification of women. Historically, men have always controlled the pen and therefore, portrayal of the sexes. Any effort by the 'signified' to break the stereotype is met with disapproval by the 'signifier'. This poem by O'Neill brings to surface the vast gap between perception and reality and the refusal of the traditional mindset to accept it when it comes to male-female equation.
Feminism, ékphrasis, objectification of women, patriarchy
The study 'Procrastination Behaviour, Stress Tolerance, and Study Habits' attempts to fill some gap of cross culture analysis in two places: Kerala and Abu Dhabi, since there are large numbers of Indians in Abu Dhabi. A student showing procrastination behaviour in a school setting is likely to be stressed out with poor study habits. Data were analysed using the statistical techniques; such as Test of significance (t-test) of the difference between means for large independent sample, Product-moment coefficient of correlation - person r. The results of this research revealed that students of U.A.E. have a lower level of stress tolerance, when compared to those from Kerala, but no significant difference was observed with procrastination behaviour and study habits.
Academic achievement, learning behaviour, procrastination, stress tolerance, study habits
Literature on the estimation of the size of shadow economy at national level is well studied. However, estimation of the size of shadow economy at state level is still scarce. This study attempts to estimate the size of shadow economy to state GDP ratio for the states of Malaysia by employing the Multiple - Indicators - Multiple - Causes (MIMIC) model using panel data from 13 states of Malaysia from 2006 to 2013. Additionally, the relationship between size of state shadow economy and other state level variables was investigated and analysed. Several findings were obtained. First, rural population and rural labour play significant roles in contributing to the development of shadow economy in the states of Malaysia. Second, smaller and more advanced states have smaller shadow economy to state GDP ratio, while the two East Malaysia states, Sabah and Sarawak, are by far the states with the largest shadow economy to state GDP ratio among all Malaysia states. Third, shadow economy is positively affected by crime index and primary sector productions, and negatively affected by state GDP growth. State shadow economy decreases if the state is ruled by opposition party. This study suggests better regulations in rural economy, rural labour, criminal activities and primary sector contributions to reduce shadow economy activities in the states of Malaysia.
AIn a multicultural country, education is considered the best medium for the three major ethnic groups to work together and achieve unity. However, to what extent education has been successful in achieving national unity is questionable. This quantitative research investigated the intervention of intercultural knowledge and behaviour among Form Four secondary national school students via a newly constructed English Language Intercultural Reading Programme (ELIRP). The results indicate respondents' level of intercultural knowledge and intercultural behaviour improved during post-ELIRP stage. The implications of this study indicate the need for constructive initiatives and intervention in school reading programmes in order to improve the level of intercultural knowledge and behaviour among Malaysian secondary school students.
Intercultural knowledge, intercultural behaviour, Intercultural Reading Program (IRP), secondary school students
It is a common belief that women in Pakistan have limited rights or privileges in a male dominated society. Women fare batter in urban areas and middle and upper sections of society. The condition of women rights in rural areas is very alarming. In fact, women face different kinds of violence such as sexual violence perpetrated by their family members, domestic abuse including spousal murder, beating, threat, honour killings, torture, acid attacks and child custody problems. Islam and most international organisations condemn violation of women rights. The feminist movements have started worldwide to protect women rights and gender-based violence. The current research focused on all those violations which women have to face in their domestic live. The case study of Bahawalpur indicates conservative environment and its impact on women rights violations. Descriptive and analytical method of study was used in this study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire from the different areas of the district Bahawalpur. Legal and punitive measures cannot succeed unless social customs, norms and societal mentality are changed. Meanwhile, better education facilities, opportunities of employments and proper social and political participation can overcome this issue. Moreover, proper implementation of law and justice after violence is necessary to eliminate this problem in the Pakistani society.
Women rights, domestic violence, education facilities, Pakistan
The study aims at understanding the role of entrepreneurship education as a moderator on entrepreneurial motivation and youth entrepreneurial readiness. The human capital, incentive and cognitive evaluation theory form the theoretical framework of the study. Data (n=490) were gathered from Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) students through a cross-sectional approach. The study used hypothetical deductive approach through structural equation modelling (SEM). Intrinsic and extrinsic motives as two sub-constructs of entrepreneurial motivation are regressed as the motives of youth entrepreneurship. Findings revealed positive and significant impacts of entrepreneurial motivation (including intrinsic and extrinsic motives) on readiness towards new business start-up. Entrepreneurship education plays a higher moderator role on the entrepreneurial motivation (including intrinsic motives and extrinsic motives) of youth. The study contributes and lends support to literature on motives of creating and sustaining new business ventures. This study contributes on how youth can be fully engaged and developed through various crucial motives. The motives of doing business are very important for successful ventures. As extrinsic motives show higher impact on new business start-up among youth, intrinsic motives are also crucial for sustenance of new business ventures. Evaluating the motives of setting up business will provide researchers and policy makers with an overview of the reasons why youths engage in entrepreneurial activities.
Intrinsic/extrinsic motives, human capital theory, entrepreneurship education, incentive and cognitive evaluation theory, entrepreneurial readiness, youth
This paper presents a study aimed at developing a building performance assessment framework relevant to emerging/developing countries that allows evaluations on whether, and to what extent, sustainability is addressed in office building developments. Instead of simply adopting an existing building performance assessment framework, a framework developed through original work involving various relevant stakeholders in Malaysian building industry is presented. The process adopted a mixed-methods approach, particularly using exploratory sequential design i.e. a qualitative followed by a quantitative phase. The goal of the qualitative phase was to discover essential performance criteria through 1) literature review; 2) in-depth interviews; and 3) focus groups discussion. The performance criteria identified from the qualitative phase were brought into the quantitative phase via a questionnaire survey for the purpose of assigning their weighting levels. The tentative assessment framework was then presented to local experts for validation, and finally the Validated Comprehensive Malaysian Office Assessment (MyOBSA) framework is proposed. The framework covers all aspects of sustainability, thus allowing sustainability to be assessed in all phases of building developments, from pre-design to operational stages. This study demonstrates that any emerging/developing country shall be able to develop its own building sustainability assessment framework by taking into account relevant priorities of that country.
Building performance assessment systems, emerging/developing countries, Malaysia, mixed-methods, office, sustainable building, sustainable development
The aim of this research aim was to study supply chain management practices among 25 selected freight forwarding companies in Nepal; the focus was on their competitive advantage Questionnaires were sent to the sample companies and the response rate was 76% though only 64% of the completed questionnaires was usable. Statistical analysis performed were reliability tests, descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression. All of the statements used in this paper had Cronbach alpha scores of >0.7, indicating their reliability. Among the 16 respondents, 25% were CEOs and Directors while the rest managers. In this study, three hypotheses were tested and all null hypothesis were rejected which implied supply chain management (SCM) practices had significant impact on supply chain responsiveness and they created competitive advantage to the firm. This study found that customer relationship as the most significant variable (36.5%) in determining supply chain responsiveness while trust and commitment were significant (34%) in determining competitive advantage. Operation system responsiveness and logistics process responsiveness were significant (86%) in determining competitive advantage. Effect of supply chain management practices were analysed and it was concluded that they were important in creating effective supply chain responsiveness and competitive advantage to the firm.
As the interplay of information technology with businesses evolve, it becomes increasingly important to understand the factors that influence the strategies that businesses adopt, especially in the realm of Digital Technologies. While the concept of digital technologies started with four pillars, namely Social Media, Mobility, Analytics and Cloud, it has expanded to include the revolutions taking place in the Internet of Things, Machine Learning, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Technologies. While the authors do not attempt to analyse each of these technologies individually, this paper aims to identify and understand the factors (technological and non-technological) which could impact the Digital Business Strategy (DBS) of an organisation. It reviews research papers, articles and examines opinions and views of selected organisations on this topic. This is in order to provide a comprehensive picture that would likely to appeal to academicians and practitioners.
Capabilities and culture, digital business strategy, digital technologies, five forces model, influencing factors