The Career Transition Programme (CTP) is a programme for finding and moving into a new career or starting a career. There is no set period of time for career transition and no limit to the number of times one might decide to change careers. Special Educational Needs Learning Disabilities (SENLD) refers to a child or young person who has special educational needs (SEN) and has learning difficulties or disabilities that make it harder for him or her to learn compared with other special needs children of about the same age. This study aims to explore, understand and explain the Career Transition Programme (CTP) of Special Education Needs Learning Disabilities (SENLD) implemented in an academic secondary school. The school selected for this study was one of the pilot schools for CTP. Six students who graduated from the school and who are working in the industrial sector are participants in the study, which uses qualitative research methodology and the case study research strategy based on unstructured interviews, observation and document analysis. The purposive sampling method is used. The challenges identified as a result of this study include management procedure, roles in the implementation of the programme and student enrolment. The researcher also understands better the existing procedure of the implementation of CTP. It is noted that the existence of a proven guideline would help the school improve the process of the implementation of CTP.
Career Transition Programme (CTP), challenges, qualitative research methodology, Special Education Needs Learning Disabilities (SENLD)
Technical and vocational skills are an important tool for reducing violence among youth, especially in Nigeria, who face security challenges due to different kinds of violence. This paper focusses on the policies and programmes intended to provide youth with skills that can help them improve their life instead of engaging in violence. The paper also studies youth participation in violence. The study shows that youth in Nigeria participate in violence because of unemployment and economic pressure. These youth are mostly from poor families and are mostly used by others to achieve their own unlawful ambition. The data were collected from various secondary sources such as textbooks, journals and conference papers that were carefully reviewed. The results obtained from the literature revealed that youth are not committed, sensitised and mobilised to taking advantage of the opportunities available to them. The results also revealed that almost all the programmes meant to provide youths with skills have failed. Poverty alleviation programmes established to create jobs, self-employment and self-reliance have been unsuccessful. Therefore, alternatives must be provided to help the younger generations. Based on the literature reviewed, the paper discusses related issues and outcomes and ends with recommendations to improve the situation.
Technical and Vocational Skills (TVS), violence, youth, Nigeria
This study is motivated by concern about the small number of male school-leavers entering the teaching profession in Malaysia. It is important to determine empirically the reasons why the teaching profession is not popular as their career option, to see whether this can inform us about measures that can be taken to increase the involvement of men in the teaching profession. This study seeks to explore the factors that restrict male students from choosing teaching as a career. A total of 85 first-year male engineering students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to rate factors that restricted them from entering the teaching profession. The findings of the study revealed that the most significant factor was associated with social influences, followed by poor job conditions, negative perceptions of the teaching profession and limited personal value. This paper proposes that halting the decline in numbers of male teachers is a task that requires the intervention and contribution of not only schools and policy makers but also parents and society, and recommends that effective strategies for attracting young male school leavers to join the teaching profession be developed.
Skills and job mismatch issues have become prevalent in the field of Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET). These issues are associated with problems encountered in learning transfer, which hinder the application of skills and knowledge learnt in training institutes in the workplace. The findings of previous studies showed that less than 15 to 20% of the knowledge and skills acquired in training institutes can be transferred to the workplace. This contributes to loss of funds invested in training programmes. Concerns over the issue of mismatch between training and industry demand led to this study, which was conducted to identify elements of the work environment that are needed to strengthen learning transfer of skills learnt in training to the workplace. This study used a qualitative exploratory case study. Qualitative data were collected from trainers, employers, NOSS panel, trainees and former trainees through face-to-face interviews and focus group discussion. Qualitative findings found that work environment factors that contributed to the transfer of learning mainly involved learning skills training in Malaysia. The findings of this data may have implications for practitioners in the delivery of skills training in order to shape a skilled workforce to help create a high-income economy.
Learning transfer, NOSS, skill training, work environment
This study attempts to examine the employability skills of students with special needs. Employability skills are related to soft skills and hard skills. The respondents were 81 impaired students in four polytechnics (Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (PSA), Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan (PIS), Politeknik Ungku Omar (PUO) and Politeknik Kota Kinabalu (PKK). The aim of this study is to identify the extent of implementation and control employability skills among special needs students in polytechnics as well as to recommend improvements to the quality of TVET graduates. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 to calculate and process the descriptive and inferential statistical findings. Mean scores for all three problems were high implementation employability skills (soft skills=3.70 and hard skills=3.86). The mean score for employability skills competency mastery of special needs students in polytechnics was 3.89, while the correlation between employability skills and mastery of skills competency was 0.776 (r), showing a relationship between application of employability skills and mastery of employability skills of special need students in polytechnic. The results showed that the activities that contribute to improved employability skills of students with special needs should be intensified to help them compete in the job market and contribute to national development.
Employability skills, hard skills, special needs students, soft skills
The development of the E-portfolio system requires indicators or characteristics that are appropriate for meeting the needs of the education system. This pioneering study is to validate and check the reliability of E-portfolio indicators for Malaysian Skills Certification (MSC). The instrument comprised 72 items and was circulated to 40 MSC educators at the Industrial Training Institute (ILP) Kuala Lumpur. This instrument was developed to measure four main constructs, namely i) records of prior attainment, ii) the virtual learning space, iii) competency assessment, and iv) the operating system. The Rasch Model approach was used to check the instrument's validity and reliability. The Rasch Model was used because it can measure respondent and item reliability and it yields data that are more reliable than data collected using only Cronbach's Alpha. The Winsteps Version 18.104.22.168 software was used for the inspection of the items' function from the aspects of reliability and seclusion in terms of item-respondents, polarity and item suitability to measure the constructs and the standardised residual correlation. In the final analysis, 18 indicators were removed as they did not suit the inspection criteria, while 54 corresponding indicators were used to measure the four constructs of the MSC E-portfolio system.
The involvement of the disabled in entrepreneurship is low. Many initiatives have been made by the government to increase the participation of the disabled in the business field. Entrepreneurship courses are introduced to the disabled as early as primary- and tertiary-level education. This study investigates entrepreneurial intention among special needs students. The respondents of this study were 90 special needs students from polytechnics in Malaysia. This study employed components of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Descriptive analysis found that entrepreneurial intention among special needs students is high. T-test and One Way ANOVA analyses reported that a significant difference in entrepreneurial intention between the genders and courses taken in university. This study suggests that the management of polytechnics should provide resources to the polytechnics pertaining to entrepreneurship among special needs students.
This study of the sustainable behaviour of engineering students in three technical universities in Malaysia was carried out to determine two things. First, the study seeks to find students' perception of their level of sustainable behaviour related to the environment. Second, to identify the relationship and the influence of demographic factors, internal and external, on sustainable behaviour. Three hundred and seventy-nine respondents were randomly selected from three technical universities, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), University Malaysia Pahang (UMP) and University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP). The research method used quantitative survey using questionnaires as the research instrument. The questionnaire was divided into three parts. Part A was on demography of the students, while Part B focussed on sustainable behaviour and Part C was on the factors of sustainable behaviour. The analysis used a test score min, Pearson correlation and linear regression obtained using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The analysis showed that the perception of the level of sustainable behaviour of the students was high and positive. The findings also showed a positive and significant relationship between sustainable behaviour and internal factors such as knowledge and internal motivation (r=0.665, r=0.495)and between sustainable behaviour and external factors, social influence social and external motivation (r=0.593, r=0.299). It is found that there is high relationships between knowledge, social influence, and motivation with sustainable behaviour. However, there is no relationship between demographic factors and sustainable behaviour.
Engineering students, internal and external factor, sustainable behaviour
Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is an important route for vocational education and skills development in Malaysia. Vocational college, Kluang, Johor offers several elements of career management that are applicable to students; for instance, they are taught to always believe in themselves so that they can make informed choices related to careers and secure the best job available. The objectives of this paper are to find and analyse the similarities and linkages between employability skills and career management. The findings will be recommended to education institutions so that they can produce students highly sought-after by the industry; in addition, these students are equipped with practical and soft skills and are ready to take up jobs in the real-world workplace. A quantitative survey in the form of a questionnaire is used as an instrument for the purpose of this study; Likert scale is employed to help respondents give appropriate answers. The population for this study comprises 210 third-semester students from Vocational College Kluang, Johor; the sample consists of 90 people drawn from the population. This study uses mean score, standard deviation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for statistical measurement. Results of this study taken will be shared with vocational colleges, which may use the findings to improve the employability skills of students. The findings will also be utilised to shape academic and vocational modules as well as the process of teaching and learning. Generally, this paper introduces the new concept of building a relationship between employability skills and career management for vocational students. This model is important and should be developed because self-knowledge and career-related skills are associated with career management and employability skills, which are vital topics for students.
Career management, employability skills, vocational students
Employers are expecting to hire graduates who can function as employees who are equipped with various skills and excel in social skills and social values (SSSV). Industry has high expectations of the ability of graduates, and it is now paramount for graduates not only to be equipped with academic qualification but with SSSV as well to be more marketable in a job market that has become intensely competitive so as to land the most lucrative job industry has to offer. Employers now assume that those who lack SSSV are ill-prepared to enter the job market. The opinion is that training institutions are accountable for producing balanced and multi-talented graduates who are competent in both technical and non-technical skills. In this paper, we have used the focus group (FG) to distinguish the SSSV problems faced by the National Dual Training System (NDTS) apprenticeship based on the perspective of the trainers. This study is an expansion of the existing SSSV outlined in the handbook by the Malaysian Ministry of Human Resources. The respondents in this study were NDTS trainers of public and private skills training institutes that offer the NDTS programme. Four FGs were carried out. The data were analysed using the Atlas.ti software based on thematic analysis strategy, and a few themes were identified from the analysis. The majority of the trainers provided positive feedback on the technical skills of the apprentices. In addition, a few other issues were raised by the trainers regarding the SSSV of the NDTS apprentices.
Focus group (FG), National Dual Training System (NDTS), social skills and social values (SSSV)
Mental health is related to depression, anxiety and stress, all of which affect the individual. Without good mental health, developing one's potential is difficult. Therefore, identifying the main factors affecting mental health is important to ensure the individual is capable of handling pressure and stress to accomplish given tasks well. Even though much research has been done to determine the factors that contribute to mental health, findings on the cause-effect relationship between the factors and mental health specific to engineering students is limited. Thus, this paper addresses the factors that are directly related to the mental health of students in technical universities in Malaysia. The survey research design was used in this study. The sample consisted of 379 students from three Malaysian technical universities (MTU), namely Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), University Technical Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) and Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP). The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) inventory and a questionnaire developed by the researchers were used to measure the students' mental health based on three elements (depression, anxiety and stress) and the factors affecting mental health (self-evaluation, living style, health, learning environment, parents, peers, lecturers, academic factors, financial factors and the lost). The data collected were analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and multiple linear regression. Based on the analysed data, a regression equation for the relationship between the various factors that contribute to mental health level was formulated. Counsellors and lecturers may use the developed formula as a reference when dealing with mental health issues affecting engineering and non-engineering students.
Designing a reliable measurement of the psychomotor and affective learning domains is a major challenge. One assessment tool, the rubric, provides flexibility in assessing and improves grading consistencies. But students are not being assessed properly as only one rubric is used to evaluate different categories of a project, causing inconsistencies in grading. Thus, an assessment rubric for different categories of a project was created, incorporating the psychomotor and affective learning domains aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy. To validate the rubrics, intra-class coefficient (ICC) and reliability tests were done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) tool. Analysis was done to determine grading consistency and agreement level among two randomly chosen evaluators when using the rubrics and to evaluate whether clearly defined assessment metrics were used in grading projects. The results showed that the psychomotor rubric has strong inter-rater reliability with scores of 0.90 and 0.86; this suggests that variables in the rubric were 'very good' at measuring the end product. However, the affective rubric shows slightly weak reliability. This might be due to the different way evaluators assess the same work as some tend to be lenient, while others are strict. The developed rubrics enables evaluators to better assess students so that students obtain justified grades according to the quality of their project.
This study centred on the implementation of a national core standard for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) personnel, especially teachers, in Malaysian TVET institutions. The descriptive and open-ended survey method was adopted for the study and the structured interview was used to collect data from respondents in Malaysia. The findings show that the major competencies of the TVET Teacher Standard comes from a comprehensive certification called the Vocational Training Operation (VTO) which was created specifically for TVET teachers. This certificate is offered by the Ministry of Human Resources. The competency standard embedded in this certification is studied. However, certain issues need to be taken into account to propose this certification as a requirement for a TVET teacher. This effort must be aligned with the Malaysian Teacher Standard for non-TVET programmes. It is recommended that the government, TVET institutions and other stakeholders give greater recognition to the national core standard for TVET teachers as the main criterion for selecting qualified and capable TVET teachers.
National core standard, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) personnel, TVET teacher, Vocational Training Operation (VTO)
Teaching is a process of disseminating knowledge and specific skills (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) that combines teaching strategies and practices. Teaching strategies revolve around planning, implementation and evaluation of pedagogical context. This study focusses on the psychomotor domain of skills. The Simpson Psychomotor Domain was applied as main objective of this research to investigate the teaching strategies in practical courses implemented by instructors. The survey research design was applied using the quantitative approaches and observation method as supporting data to identify implementation of strategies that develop the psychomotor domain. This research involved 301 instructors from vocational colleges who participated in the questionnaire survey and four heads of department who participated in the observation. The results indicate that the most dominant teaching strategies applied in skill-based pedagogical context are throwback, questioning, demonstration, discussion and video screening. Observation of the four heads of department showed that they laid emphasis on implementation of the psychomotor domain through use of observation, inventory, motion control, special movement and adjustment. The results may provide new ideas for instructors to plan teaching strategies to improve the skill-based pedagogical context.
The quality of skilled workers in the TVET training system of Malaysia as assessed by the automotive industry includes technical and non-technical skills. However, Public Training Skills Institutions (PTSI) have failed to produce highly skilled, competent and high workability trainees for the workforce. This study aims to confirm the domain and element that contribute to the formation of competent behaviour and workability skills for trainees in the automotive industry. Questionnaires involving 361 respondents from three focus groups involved centre advisers from the southern districts of Johor, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan. The Delphi technique of processing the data is used. The findings of the study revealed that the 11 experts on the panel agreed that 12 domains contribute to the formation of behavioural competence and workability skills. The findings based on the survey identified the 12 domains and most of the elements, which received a mean score of 3.00 to 4.00, as: (i) governance; (ii) standard of competence; (iii) industrial relations; (iv) qualifications framework; (v) standard skill suppliers; (vi) delivery; (vii) evaluation; (viii) industry work experience; (ix) twinning programmes; (x) community service programmes; (xi) industry based curriculum; and (xii) entrepreneurship education. In conclusion, industry and training institutions need these 12 domains to enhance the automotive industry to enable it to contribute to building a high-income nation.
Automotive industry, Delphi techniques, panel of experts, Public Training Skills Institutions (PTSI)
This paper discusses the success factors (SFs) of the entrepreneurship programme available in Malaysian community colleges. The benefit of the Modified Nominal Group Technique (NGT) approach carried out aims to achieve understanding of the usability test and evaluation of the SFs framework. The objective of this study is to identify the usability and evaluation of lecturers on the elements of entrepreneurship for four domain areas, strategy, environment, temporal and industry. The analysis covers the importance of SFs framework development, which determines the type of framework to use as reference in carrying out the entrepreneurship programme in Malaysian community colleges. In the usability test and evaluation process, 21 experts were chosen from three types of community college, from whom seven lecturers were allocated to each programme based on the understanding of the lecturers. Questionnaires were distributed to seek lecturer consensus. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to analyse and find the percentage of consensus for each domain within the framework. This was to find the percentage of expert consensus against the SFs framework. The result of the analysis shows more than 75% acceptance and consensus for the functionality of SFs. Basically, this analysis is capable of providing reference and guidelines for the development of a SFs framework. Therefore, the analysis is able to provide information and reference for future researchers to explore the domain of entrepreneurship.
Consensus, domain, element, nominal group technique, succes factors, usability evaluation
Assessment practices in educational settings have undergone much transformation in recent years. The innovative approach to assessment includes providing continuous feedback, correctives and enrichment to students with the goal of enhancing students' academic performance. Classroom assessment practices have been more recently influenced by the learning process. The main purpose of this study was to gather information on assessment practices that use the mastery learning approach, which is formative assessment through which teachers in the classroom can develop a sense of direction while providing continuous feedback, correctives and enrichment to students with the aim of bridging learning gaps in what students currently know and what they should know. In this study, the semi-structured interview was conducted with six vocational teachers from vocational colleges. Discussion on the findings was based on the experience of the participants in developing a sense of direction by giving continuous feedback, correctives and enrichment to promote student learning. The outcomes could be a source reference for providing information to teachers on a new concept of assessment and how, at the same time, it can be successfully embedded in the teaching and learning process to promote student learning.
Engineering students enrol in engineering without a clear understanding of how they can achieve success in the field. The current study explores study strategies of engineering undergraduates across two geographical locations, Malaysia and Australia. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews, in which 16 final-year engineering undergraduates volunteered to participate. Data were analysed using a thematic coding approach and the NVivo software was used to assist with the coding process. The results suggested that engineering students at universities in both locations used very similar learning strategies to achieve different success outcomes such as to fulfil assessment criteria, to achieve a personal goal or success, to endure with challenges, to overcome challenges, to survive after failure and to keep persisting in the programme. Integrating knowledge, visualising engineering applications, optimising the use of learning materials and mastering engineering skills are examples of strategies that were frequently used by the students. The level of importance of each strategy is context dependent.
Engineering students, learning strategy, study success
The ability to conduct valid assessment of teachers' attitude towards teaching of a technical course is important as teachers' attitude influences the quality of teaching and students' learning experience. This paper focuses on the development and validation of an instrument for assessing technical teachers' attitudes towards teaching engineering drawing. The study used a developmental research design method. Three factors of attitude were postulated and 19 items were constructed based on the understanding gained from existing literature. The draft instrument was piloted on a sample of 235 teachers and analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method, specifically Exploratory and second order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA & CFA) techniques with orthogonal varimax rotation. The results indicate that all 19 items are properly loaded on the three postulated factors, providing evidence for the construct validity of the instrument. The overall reliability of the instrument based on inter-item consistency was found to be high (a = 0.81) and therefore, scores obtained using the instrument are reliable. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the instrument is a valid and reliable tool for measuring teachers' attitudes towards teaching engineering drawing.
Various efforts have been taken by the Ministry of Education (MOE) and the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE) to improve the country's education system. Learning methods were introduced to ensure the education system achieves the desired educational goals and produces individuals who are well-balanced spiritually, emotionally and physically. However, the issue of graduate unemployment often crops up in the mass media; more often than not, the discussion has centred on the failure of tertiary educational institutions to churn out quality graduates. Thus, the method of work-based learning (WBL) is seen as a way to improve the soft skills of local graduates. This study was conducted using the quantitative research survey, with an adapted questionnaire as the instrument. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The respondents consisted of 97 students who attended WBL programmes at five community college i.e. Community College Selayang, Community College Ampang, Community College Kota Melaka, Community College Sg. Petani and Community College Besut. The findings revealed that the level of soft skills among community college students was high. The soft skills included communication skills, problem-solving skills, learning and information management skills, profession related ethnics skills and leadership skills. This study of community college studentsis significant because it identified the level of soft skills of students who had performed WBL methods. The findings of this study can help community colleges to produce high-quality graduates, hence reducing the number of unemployed graduates.
Community colleges, soft skills, work-based learning
This study was conducted to identify indicators for the use of e-portfolio for a virtual learning environment in the Malaysian Skills Certification (MSC) system. The approach is through a modified Delphi technique run in three stages. The first stage is analysis of past research material and documents as guidelines in the development of questionnaire items. In the second and third stages, the developed questionnaire is distributed to experts for approval in determining e-portfolio indicators for implementation of the Malaysian Skills Certification system. The sample selected consists of 11 experts in the field of skills certification in Malaysia. Feedback from the experts was analysed using descriptive statistics (mean, median and interquartile range). The findings identify four elements (Assessment, Personal Space, Exhibition and Learning Management) and 32 indicators through a literature review. In conclusion, there are 22 indicators were identified as necessary for the implementation of the use of the e-portfolio in the Malaysian Skills Certification system.
E-portfolio, indicator, Malaysia Skills Certification (MSC)
There has been a global call for institutions of learning to engage in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) by leading world organisations. Although scholars advocate for an interdisciplinary approach to sustainability, the research literature shows that majority of sustainability issues are addressed through fields such as environmental and developmental education. There has also been a call for the integration of Sustainable Development (SD) in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programmes by various scholars and bodies such as the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). The issue, however, is that Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) programmes are not yet embracing this call to integrate ESD into their programmes. Hence, it is imperative to reiterate the intersection between TVE and SD and how the former can contribute significantly to the SD agenda. Therefore, by completing a qualitative documentary analysis of a TVE programme, using a Malaysian Higher Education Institution (HEI) as a case study, this paper discusses the visibility of sustainability in TVE programmes as well as explores the overarching goal of ESD and why it is especially crucial for TVE. Findings reveal that the concept of sustainability is only barely reflected in the TVE teacher training curriculum. Recommendations for practice change and further research are presented and discussed.
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), ESD integration, qualitative document analysis, teacher training, Technical and Vocational Education (TVE)
Workers who have green skills can also be considered sustainable human capital. In fact, the process to produce sustainable human capital is closely linked to the curriculum implemented in institutions that offer training for occupations. Polytechnic Malaysia is one of the big institutions in Malaysia that offer Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Focus area 1 (BT1), action plan 5 (PT5) of the Blueprint Polygreen document clearly refers to the lack of green elements in the Polytechnic Malaysia curriculum. Blueprint Polygreen also states the urgent need to implement green practices by incorporating green elements across the curriculum by up to 30%. In response to this, this study was conducted to explore green elements for greening the existing curriculum at Polytechnic Malaysia. The study was conducted using the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). The FDM analysis shows elements of integrity get first ranking in the inventory of green elements in this study. These findings also indicate that the element of integrity is a very important element and should be incorporated in the Polytechnic Malaysia curriculum to enrich students' learning in order to produce sustainable human capital for the nation's needs.
Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), green element, green skills
Even though Malaysian students attend 11 years of formal English language classes in primary and secondary school and continue to learn English at tertiary level, for many undergraduates, using the English language competently is still a challenge. This may be attributed to the lack of study skills among students; using the right study skills is synonymous with autonomous learning. This paper draws on findings of a university research project and aims to report on an investigation into the role and application of study skills in tertiary-level English courses. Lecturers/teachers and students from a Malaysian university formed the study sample and the focus was on their perception. Purposive sampling was used to select the samples, while data collected via semi-structured interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Classroom observations were also used to support the findings. The findings of this qualitative study revealed a mismatch between the perception of lecturers/teachers and students of study skills due to their differing expectations. Nevertheless, there was general agreement among the lecturers/teachers that should study skills be taught in tertiary-level English courses, it should be embedded within the course content and not exist as a separate, stand-alone entity. The study concludes with recommendations to direct future research.
Autonomous learning, English classrooms, perception, study skills, teaching practices
This research paper discusses the development of an instrument to measure the attitude to science displayed by indigenous pupils. The two main objectives of this research are to build a set of criteria for developing a correct attitude to science among indigenous pupils and to determine the reliability of each criterion to develop a correct attitude to science among indigenous pupils. A qualitative approach using document analysis and an expert interview protocol was undertaken to build the criteria for developing a correct attitude towards science among indigenous pupils. Data from the document analysis and expert interviews were analysed manually using the frequency matrix table. Cohen's Kappa reliability analysis was used to determine the agreement index items for each criterion identified. The reliability of the nine criteria and 28 dimensions that were established to measure attitude towards science among indigenous pupils was tested using the quantitative approach. To obtain the reliability score of these criteria, questionnaires were distributed to 31 indigenous pupils throughout Johor, Malaysia. The Kappa coefficient value was 0.84, which showed very good agreement. The responses were analysed using the Rasch Measurement Model as available in Winstep software. The Cronbach's Alpha value for the criteria was 0.98. The development of the instrument to measure the attitude of indigenous pupils towards science is one of the research efforts to enhance the learning competency of indigenous pupils, especially in the aspect of knowledge. The outcome of this research will be one of the key elements for future research in developing a science competency standard for indigenous pupils.
Criteria, indicator, indigenous pupils and attitude towards science
Every student learns with different learning preferences in a classroom. In order to know dominant learning preferences, learning styles play a significant role. Studying learning styles is important as contemporary studies have revealed that to increase the value of students' learning process, there should be a match between students' learning styles and teachers' teaching style. Mismatches in teaching style and students' preferred learning style often lead to poor academic performance among students. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to explore learning styles of engineering students in the Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Forty-six students from the Electrical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering disciplines participated in this study. The instrument used is the survey questionnaire based on the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) by Felder and Silverman that consists of 44 items. The ILS consists of four dimensions, each with two sub-scales: process (active-reflective), perceive (sensing-intuitive), input (visual-verbal) and understanding (sequential-global). Each main dimension has 11 items. Data were analysed using SPSS 20.0. The analysis showed that in the process dimension, 57.11% of the participants were active learners, while 42.86% were reflective learners; in the perceive dimension, 54.54% were sensing learners and 45.45%, reflective learners; in the input dimension, 76.87% were visual learners and 23.12%, verbal learners; and in the understanding dimension, 52.96% were sequential learners and 47.03%, global learners. This study highlights that knowing the preferred learning style of students will help teachers to create a classroom environment that suits students' needs so that their academic achievement can be easily enhanced.
Index of Learning Style (ILS), learning style, survey