Numerous studies have discussed the political and economic history of Malaya with an emphasis on British economic exploitation, but with little focus on the economic exploitation of Malay rulers before the colonial era. This paper is a qualitative study exploring the economic exploitation of Malay rulers before the arrival of the British using content analysis of secondary data. The study finds that the exploitation of Malays started during the time of the Malay Sultanates when Arabs, Indians and Chinese arrived as traders and middlemen. The rulers of the pre-colonial era gave preference to foreigners over locals, and this practice confined locals to low-wage activities. The economic isolation was magnified during British rule and economic policy. After independence, the Malay economy improved due to the efforts of the nationalist political parties in implementing the New Economic Policy.
Economic exploitation, peasants, Malays, rubber plantation, tin mining
Generally, privacy is a universally recognised human rights. In a medical setting, all patients have a right to privacy, while doctors have a corresponding duty. Doctors are entrusted with medical records or information of patients under their care. The information could be disclosed by the patient himself, created or generated by the doctors. Although this is a common law principle, sometimes it conflicts with the public interest and duty to warn a third party. However, health-related laws in Nigeria do not have an adequate provision ensuring the safeguard and protection of this rule, nor provide reconciliation where there is such conflict, like in the case of disclosing HIV status to spouses. The objective of this paper is to examine the law and the rules of medical practice on nondisclosure of a patient's confidential record, with reference to doctors' duty to keep confidential all information about their patient and the public interest, especially their HIV status. Doctrinal research method is used to study both primary and secondary legal resources. Reference may be made to other jurisdictions. The scope of the paper is limited to the provision of the legal framework regulating doctor-patient relationship in Nigeria. More than half of the HIV patients do not disclose their status to their spouses, and there is a conflict between patients' right to privacy and public interest not to allow the spread of the viruses/ diseases due to nondisclosure principles. Hence, a need to have a legal framework to bridge this gap.
Confidentiality, Privacy, HIV, Non-Disclosure, rules of medical practices
Target Costing (TC) is seen to be related to more than product cost reduction. It also includes product quality, functionality and lead time that, to a similar extent, should be seriously considered. Organisational capabilities (OCs), as a contextual variable, could affect organisational functions when, in the study assumption, it is supported by the balanced scorecard (BSC) model in relation to TC objectives. This study examines the relationship between OCs factors, decision on TC implementation and organisational performance in association with company strategy and industry type effectiveness in the Malaysian automotive industry. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data. In total, 515 questionnaires were distributed, while 201 questionnaires were collected. Of the number collected, 176 fully completed ones were used. The results revealed that all three levels of OCs, local, architectural and process capabilities, significantly reflected the OCs, which were found to be positive and significantly influencing the decision on TC implementation. Company strategy had a significant moderating effect on the causal relationship between OCs and the decision on TC implementation. There was a significant invariant between car makers and part and component makers in the local and architectural capabilities, but not in the process capabilities. The study has extended the TC literature in adopting BSC for measuring identified variables using Rasch Model outputs as inputs for SEM analysis and providing evidence on TC implementation and OCs in the Malaysian context.
Target costing, organisational capabilities, organisational performance, automotive industry, company strategy, industry type
This paper investigates the historical development of charcoal production and distribution for energy purposes, as well as charcoal's possible use for soil amendment in Northeast Thailand. Charcoal evolution in Northeast Thailand has paralleled the pattern of change from subsistence to market economy. Small charcoal producers employ varied feedstock types from a wide range of low cost, locally available sources and use old-fashioned kilns i.e. permanent clay kilns or temporary rice husk mounds, whereas the larger producers use more uniform feedstock types and more modern, costly and permanent kilns i.e. the brick kiln. In contrast, several large-scale producers comprising multiple small producers continue to employ older production techniques. Charcoal distribution by small-scale producers is at subsistence level for home consumption and limited intra-community sale, while distribution by large-scale producers extend through wider market channels into urban communities. No direct evidence exists as to the deliberate use of charcoal for soil amendment in the region, despite the general knowledge of charcoal having (undetermined) soil improvement properties.Our research intends to examine charcoal's possible use for soil amendment through more thorough research into charcoal production and distribution in Northeast Thailand.
Anthropogenic soil, charcoal kiln, indigenous production technologies, soil amendment, subsistence and market economies
Legal literacy is one of the important aspects of consumer empowerment. The objective of this paper is to determine the domains and indicators of legal literacy in Malaysia. The methodologies used are a combination of qualitative and quantitative research. The qualitative method utilised a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique, while the data for quantitative method were gathered through a survey. The findings of the FGD reveal that there are eight domains of consumer legal literacy that are based on consumer rights. The rights are the right to basic needs, the right to safe goods and services, the right to information, the right to make a choice, the right to be heard, the right to get compensation, the right to consumer education and the right to life in a healthy and safe environment. However, the results of the factor analysis revealed five domains, which are the right to safe and quality goods and services, the right to compensation, the right to consumer education, the right to be informed of financial matters and the right to be heard and to obtain information. Altogether, there are 46 indicators for measuring consumer legal literacy. The domains and indicators can be used to develop a Malaysian Legal Literacy Index and provide the instruments for measuring legal literacy in Malaysia.
Literacy, protection, right, consumer, Malaysia, empowerment
The dynamics of regulations related to the principles of human rights in Indonesia are still faced with fundamental problems, as state authorities and human rights defenders tend to be orientated to the West and Middle East/Far East. Readings on human rights have been focussing on the UN Declaration of Human Rights, the Islamic Cairo Declaration of Human Rights and the constitution of modern countries. However, it appears that the human rights movement today has reached third generation, advocating, among others, the right to adequate information, a healthy environment and the protection of minorities. This paper elaborates, in particular, on the re-actualisation of human rights principles in the Classical Constitution of Nusantara using a research method of doctrinal legal research, in which legal documents become the main subjects of research, including Nusantara's classical manuscripts. Long before Indonesia's independence, Nusantara principles were explicitly incorporated into the classical constitutions of kingdoms and/or sultanates in Nusantara and in practice; these constitutions included the Constitution of Pagaruyung used by the Kingdom of Minangkabau in West Sumatra, the Kie Se Kolano Constitution used by the Sultanate of Tidore and the Book of Panji Salaten used by the Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara. Accordingly, the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR should transpose these principle to law in the fifth amendment of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
Honesty principle, human rights, Nusantara constitution, Re-actualisation, the 1945 constitution
The objective of this paper is to compare the self-perceived Quality of Life (QoL) between disabled and non-disabled youths in Malaysia using the WHOQOL-BREF (World Health Organisation Quality of Life - Abbreviated version) instrument. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 300 disabled students and a control group comprising 523 non-disabled students from Malaysian higher learning institutions were the subjects for this study. The score for each domain was computed using the formula outlined by WHOQOL-BREF. Descriptive analysis was used to analyse the characteristics of the respondents. Due to the non-normality of the score distribution, nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the mean scores of each domain across selected demographic variables. The mean age of the disabled students was 21.7 years old (SD=1.9), while that of the non-disabled students was 22.3 years old (SD=2.6). As expected, the mean total QoL score (TotQoL) of the non-disabled students was higher than that of the students with disabilities. Except for the social relationships domain, the disabled students had significantly higher mean scores for the physical health, psychological health and environment domains compared with the control group. For the disabled group, no significant difference was observed between males and females in the mean TotQoL as well as in the four domains. Hearing-impaired students were found to score the lowest TotQoL among the categories of disabled students. They also scored the lowest for the social relationships domain, with a mean score of 5.91 compared with 16.26 and 15.98 for visually- and mobility-impaired students, respectively. In conclusion, WHOQOL-BREF is a useful instrument for assessing QoL for various groups of people. Accessing the QoL of youth including PWDs could assist relevant policy-makers and stakeholders in identifying problems faced by PWDs and in designing relevant intervention programmes.
WHOQOL-BREF, disabilities, university students, quality of life, comparative study
In the study of religion, syncretism has been conveyed as a controversial concept and has become an issue for debate because it depicts 'impurity' or 'inauthenticity'. The term has been widely used by some Western scholars to elaborate on its practice among Ancient and Christian societies, and at the same time, it is also used in the context of Muslim communities, particularly in describing the practice of traditional cultures in Malaysia that were rejected by Muslim reformers. In practice, however, traditional culture cannot be easily distinguished from Muslim practices. Thus, what explains the desire of some Muslims to continue practising elements of their traditional culture associated with syncretism? This paper aims to discover the factors influencing the intention of the Kedayan people to practise elements their traditional culture that are associated with syncretism. Data were self-administered among 414 respondents and analysed using descriptive and inferential analyses of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The results of this study revealed that the Kedayan people have a tendency to continue with practices of their traditional culture that may still contain remnants of syncretism. In addition, the results also revealed their agreement with the common perception of traditional culture and subjective norms as factors influencing Kedayans' intention to practise their traditional culture.
Kedayan, Malaysia, muslim, syncretism, traditional culture
The effects of health on economic development have been discussed in depth in the literature. Most of the findings have shown that the economic performance of a country can be enhanced by improving the health of the citizens. This paper investigates the causal link between health and economic development of high-income economies of selected OIC countries. Since these countries also have high expenditure on health in comparison with other OIC countries, the findings would give some indication of the importance of having high spending in health for the economic wellbeing of a country. The Toda-Yamamoto Granger non-causality model was used on data spanning from 1970 to 2015, and the results showed mixed causal relationships. Specifically, some countries like Bahrain and Kuwait have a health condition that boosts economic development, while Saudi Arabia experiences the opposite effect. However, health and economic development have bidirectional causality in the United Arab Emirates, while Brunei, Oman and Qatar do not show any causal direction between health and economic development. The findings give some evidence of the importance of health on economic prosperity without disregarding the fact that economic development is also important for good health.
This article focusses on an experimental study conducted to improve the speaking proficiency of engineering students using the task-based approach. Engineering students are expected to possess adequate speaking proficiency for career growth prospects. The major impediment in job placement faced by students is their lack of proficiency in speaking. This article explores the pivotal role played by the English Language teacher in guiding students towards oral proficiency in English and enabling them to overcome constraints in speaking. The participants of the study are first-year civil engineering students comprising 38 participants in the experimental and control group respectively. The main tool used in this study is oral communicative tasks, which are administered to the experimental group. The results of the statistical analysis have revealed that there is a significant level of improvement in the oral proficiency of the experimental group.
This paper uses Pesaran et al.'s (1999) Pooled Means Group (PMG) estimation to explore the role of government expenditures of the host countries on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows. The PMG estimator allows for a greater degree of parameter heterogeneity by imposing common long-run relationships across countries. A panel data from 24 developing countries was utilised for the study period between 1982 and 2014. The empirical results show government expenditure significantly promotes FDI inflows in the long-term. The results also suggest that market size plays an important role in FDI inflows.
FDI inflows, Government expenditures, Pooled Means Group, Market Size
Various social media platforms such as Facebook, YouTube and WhatsApp are often used by youths today to socialise, entertain themselves and to obtain the latest news. However, it has also led to rampant crimes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of Malaysian female university students on social media crimes. Sixty female undergraduate students from Universiti Sains Malaysia were selected as respondents using simple random and convenient sampling. Meanwhile 10 of them were chosen for in-depth interviews. All respondents have social media accounts such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and WhatsApp. Majority of them were aware of crimes involving social media, however only 28% of them decided to limit their usage of social media due to concerns of becoming a potential victim. Meanwhile, 72 per cent use social media without any limitation. This study contributes to the knowledge of perceptions of young women at Malaysian universities and their vulnerability to social media crimes. It is suggested relevant bodies should take into account the possible dangers that can be generated from social media which can affect the psychological health of young women.
Perception, social media crimes, female university students, Malaysia
The key objective of this study is to develop a household Empowerment Index for a quick description of household empowerment. Household empowerment was gauged through the first-hand data gathered through face-to-face interview of household head form the rural households of Pakistan. In the process of data collection, multi-stage cluster sampling method was employed which involved twenty-four villages of southern Punjab and 600 heads of the household who were interviewed. With a view to assigning a weight of indicator variables, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied. The findings indicate that there are three pillars of the household empowerment: economic empowerment, social empowerment and above all political empowerment. The said three pillars are based upon the ten sub-pillars which further contain 42 indicators that contribute significantly to household empowerment.
Composite index; economic empowerment; household empowerment; political empowerment; social empowerment; rural household
This study did a content analysis on readers' comments to online-newspaper reports of the 2015 presidential election in Nigeria. Using two online newspapers as a case study, readers' comments on randomly selected 10 political news stories in the 30 days prior to the election were used as samples. Readers' comments were rated based on their analytical and persuasive content. An opinion survey of 200 voters following the election was also conducted to justify the influence of the comments on voting behaviour of readers. Using gate-keeping and public-agenda in readers' comments as theoretical underpinning, this study found that the direction of more than three-quarter of online readers' comments influenced the voting behaviour for more than 90% of online-newspaper audience. It concluded that the platform could be an avenue not only to boost political campaigns but also to measure public opinion on political issues.
Agenda transition, Feedback, Online-newspaper, Political behaviours, Readers' comments
The objective of this study is to analyse competence in home gardening among women in Minahasa and Bitung, North Sulawesi. The respondents were 267 housewives selected out of 803 women participating in home gardening intensification programs. Data was analysed using the Structural Equation Model. Results indicated that the level of competence is high and affected directly by extension and perceptions of home gardening, and indirectly by the environment and group roles.
Competence of women, food diversification, home gardening
The study aimed to survey the acceptance level and the collaboration power of students in using the microblogging site Edmodo to learn poems. The survey was conducted in semi-urban schools in Perak. The study employed the mixed method survey to collect data. In the quantitative method 150 participants were involved in answering the questionnaire. The focus group interview was carried out and the online artifacts were used to support the qualitative data. The quantitative and qualitative data show that the acceptance towards Edmodo and the collaboration among students were positive.
Edmodo, collaboration, learning of poems, social networking site
The purpose of the present article is to explore Homi Bhabha's notion of ambivalence in J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace, one of Coetzee's most popular works. The main concern of the article is to demonstrate how colonial authority is evidenced in Coetzee's Disgrace. After giving a general summary of Bhabha's postcolonial ideas and a brief synopsis of Disgrace, the researchers analyse the main character's conduct and relationships with other characters in terms of Bhabha's concept of ambivalence. The article shows that ambivalence destabilises the discourse of colonial authority and discloses the uncertainties and anxieties within colonial powers. It reveals that not only does Coetzee show traces of the coloniser's authority and white supremacy through David's demeanour and his relationship with non-white people, he also emphasises David's anxiety and uncertainty.
Discourse of colonial authority, conduct, relationships, white supremacy, ambivalence, anxiety
Metaphorical language is used extensively in everyday speech as well as in literary discourse. Since metaphors are mainly culturally-determined, they sometimes become the source of misinterpretation in intercultural interactions. Due to their concreteness and highly sensuous nature, edible items are liable to function as a source domain that can be mapped onto several target domains, including human traits. In line with this view, the current study aims to investigate the metaphorical conceptualisations of edible items in contemporary Persian from the perspective of Cultural Linguistics. Accordingly, a list of edibles was prepared and 237 Persian speakers in Iran wrote down their conceptualisations of each item. The results indicated that in Persian, edibles are associated with PERSONALITY and APPEARANCE as target domains. The paper concludes that edible conceptualisations can be largely attributed to the similarities between some traits of human beings and those of the food items. The findings of this study should lead to a better understanding of the Persian culture and language.
Cultural conceptualisation, Cultural Linguistics, cultural metaphor, edible items
This article describes and explains the policies related to the use and teaching of English in Education Policy and Planning (LPP) in Bangladesh. From Independence, the nation faced a problem in selecting a consistent English language policy; the selections that were made resulted in poor English language teaching in the country. A historical timeline of the English-in-Education policy is presented and discussed in this article to identify the inconsistencies in the language policy. Although a number of challenges since achieving Independence have been addressed, in the past two decades the problem of selecting a suitable education policy for English as a subject has become more critical with the introduction of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as a method of English language teaching. Therefore, the present article critically examines Bangladesh's current language in education policy through the framework of Kaplan and Baldauf (2003). This paper is entirely based on secondary sources and entails analysis of the extant literature. From data obtained from articles and manuscripts, this article sketches the problem from historical accounts, empirical studies and experts' points of view.
Language Policy and Planning (LPP), English Language Teaching (ELT), Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), Bangladesh
This paper reports on a classroom action research study on teaching news writing in English to two different classes of English Department students. Twelve students from the Diploma Programme and 12 others from the Undergraduate Programme enrolled in the course, English for Journalism, were purposively selected to participate in this research. Teaching of this kind requires a unique strategy because the students are faced with the problem of news content on the one hand and that of how to convey the content on the other. In addition to strengthening the news content through field observation and interviews of the source of information, students should create suitable kinds of genre at the discourse level and select appropriate types of lexicogrammar at the clause level. Basically, news falls into the recount genre, but there are usually some sub-genres embedded within this larger genre. How concepts of genre work and how lexicogrammar should be employed in teaching English news writing are the focus of discussion in this paper. The results of this research show that regardless of the different learning performance of the two groups of students, it is evident that in transferring field knowledge to a well-arranged news piece consisting of relevant sentences, students in the different classes need knowledge of both text organisation associated with genre and linguistic skills associated with lexicogrammar choices.
The use of metaphors in political discourse has been constantly researched through the decades. Primarily, metaphors act as a rhetorical device in political discourse aimed at characterising political figures, opponents, events and citizens in persuading them towards a specific point of view. This study discovers the various types of conceptual metaphors employed in the tweets of the Malaysian Prime Minister Dato' Seri Najib Razak (henceforth, Najib) and the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi (henceforth, Modi) throughout their election campaign in their respective countries. The Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) as proposed by Pragglejazz Group has been adopted for examining the election tweets in-depth and to indicate possible metaphorical linguistic expressions (MLEs). Furthermore, the cognitive metaphor framework by Lakoff and Johnson has been employed in analysing the emerging conceptual metaphorical themes in the tweets of both the political premiers. Results from the analysis have portrayed fascinating underlying conceptual metaphors and metaphorical linguistic expressions in the tweets of both the political figures. The findings revealed that the use of conceptual metaphors in the political tweets induces specific understanding of how political activities throughout the election are conceptualised and expressed in denoting particular ideological stances.
Conceptual metaphors, election, metaphorical linguistic expressions, political discourse
Marriage migration has led to marriage migrants as a significant aspect of migration. While much of the literature on migration in the Malaysian context discusses labour migration, very little is documented on marriage migration in Malaysia, especially concerning foreign spouses' viewpoint on their international marriage. Therefore, this paper sought to investigate and document the foreign spouses' lived experience in several aspects of life from acquiring the spouse visa to employment to family and relationship with friends in Malaysia. Results obtained from data collected through in-depth interviews give the overview that foreign spouses experience difficulties due to their status as a 'foreigner'. Foreign spouses' experience of living in Malaysia is related to the idea that a 'foreigner' is considered socially excluded in the country, leading to difficulties. Overall, foreign spouses face many challenges living in Malaysia.
International marriages, foreign spouses, lived experience, Malaysia, marriage migration
This article aims to assist Malaysia-based Islamic equity investors in identifying possible diversification benefits by diversifying their portfolio in the Southeast Asian market and the top 10 world's largest equity markets (China, Japan, Hong Kong, India, UK, US, Canada, France, Germany and Switzerland). The multivariate GARCH-dynamic conditional correlation is applied to estimate the time-varying linkages of the selected Asian and international Islamic stock index returns with the Malaysian Islamic stock index returns, covering approximately eight years daily starting from 29 June, 2007 to 30 June, 2016. At the regional level, the results indicate that Malaysia-based Islamic equity investors would benefit most if they include the Japanese Islamic stock indices in their portfolio. Meanwhile, at the international level, the results imply that the US Islamic stock indices provide the most diversification benefit for the Malaysia-based Islamic equity investors.
It has been argued that consumption and economic behaviour are strongly related. Malaysia is currently experiencing good economic growth, urbanisation, modernisation in technology and social and demographic change, especially in terms of a consumption-orientated lifestyle. Malaysian household expenses have a significant impact on the national economy. The recent economic crisis has also contributed to changes in the structure of Malaysia's current economic growth due to its impact on the current expenditure of households. One of the factors driving household expenses is total household income, which determines a household's ability to spend. Household spending is often changed by the strength of the economy as illustrated by the recession or economic crises of 1986, 1997, 1998 and 2008. The economic crises had contributed to a decrease in income and the purchasing power parity of households. This paper examines the roles of expenditure, basic needs and other demographic factors in explaining the concept of 'survivability' in Malaysia's current economic environment. Suggestions and recommendations will be offered aimed at educating households towards becoming good financial planners.
Academic writing is at the centre of teaching in higher education, fulfilling a variety of functions, including asking students to produce paragraphs, essays, or sit written exams. This paper argues that the current writing provision in most departments of English in the Arab world should be viewed as offering more practical support in the writing process. To that end, 100 argumentative essays were collected, from English-writing classes at the Department of English at Al-Zaytoonah University in Jordan, to study the role of the topic sentence and the thesis statement in ensuring paragraph unity, topic unity, and text organisation. A detailed qualitative data analysis was undertaken, supported by quantitative analysis to account for the frequencies of the writing breakdowns. The results showed that most of the students failed to write effective topic sentences or thesis statements that relate directly to the posed question. They also failed to introduce ideas for the subsequent discussion. Additionally, most of them introduced undeniable and broad opening sentences that were globally related to the text; consequently, they failed in sustaining topic unity, paragraph unity, and text organisation. The paper suggests that academic staff should be more involved in practical writing courses to help students handle the specificity of academic writing requirements. It is expected that the study will inspire re-designing the writing syllabuses.
One of the more stimulating problems presented by a literary text, to an English-Arabic translator, concerns culture-bound terms (CBTs) and proper names (PNs). This paper examines the domestication and foreignisation strategies applied to the CBTs and PNs in two English-Arabic translations of Marlowe's play, Doctor Faustus. Murad (1992) and Luluah's (2013) texts represent two prominent Arabic translations of the play, and were selected as part of the research corpus along with the original (English) version of Doctor Faustus. The study grounds itself in Venuti's (1995) theory of domestication and foreignisation and Newmark (1988) and Coillie's (2006) translation strategies were employed to operationalise the theory. The two translations were examined for CBTs and PNs, and examples of these were extracted and their equivalents in the original version marked. The data were then analysed and content analysis, which included frequency analyses, was conducted. The results reveal that although the translators used various strategies, they both favoured foreignisation, and Murad's translation is more foreignised than Luluah's. Also, certain strategies such as deletion (complete omission) were not utilised at all. The researchers conclude that although there is evidently a healthy inclination towards domestication, foreignisation is the more pervasive method with regard to Arabic translations of Doctor Faustus. This study is relevant to writers and translators, as well as instructors, students and scholars engaged in translation and literary studies.
Culture-bound terms, Doctor Faustus, domestication, foreignisation, proper names, translation strategies
This paper looks at the affinity between women and animals through a lens of material postcolonial ecofeminism. Anita Desai's novel Cry, the Peacock provides an opportunity to re-think some of the postcolonial issues espoused in the fiction of male writers through a gendered perspective while simultaneously considering the specific processes that assign the woman and the animal to inferior and stereotyped positions. The woman and the animal, then, become mediators for each other. The notion of violence is key in exploring patriarchal oppression of both women and animals in Desai's novel. A key argument that is furthered in this paper is that the 'other' in the form of the woman and the animal is centred in the novel although both the woman and the animal are removed and distanced from society in this novel. While the woman becomes the mediator through whom the animal can be read, identity politics and relationships between men and women are mediated through the figure of the animal. The position of ambivalence seems to occupy the heart of the protagonists in this story, with the women belonging neither to the cultural or the natural.
This paper aims to investigate the terminology relating to irony and the manifestation of the struggle within the inner thought of a 21st-century Malaysian artist, Sophia Kamal. Her artwork discussed here portrays a significant picture of what it means to be a woman in the 21st century. In her recent exhibition, entitled "WUDU", Sophia exposed the 21st-century dilemma faced by many modern women, especially the modern Muslim woman, through extensive, fine pieces of colourful and impressive artwork. Sophia's art pieces have contributed to the development of local artwork produced by contemporary women artists in Malaysia by exploring the perception of identity in terms of the female gaze and consciousness from a feminist perspective, which this paper will discuss further. Focussing on the issues of identity and feminism, this paper argues that her art pieces reflect the conflict between traditional culture and postmodern life, thinking and culture that is increasing its visibility in urban Malaysia.
Female identity, Malaysian art, postmodern art, Sophia Kamal, women artists
Constant development of new media technology has exposed young people to a vast range of creative opportunities. The emergence of social media reduces the barriers in getting in touch not only among individuals and society at large, but also within industry. For creative arts students especially, social media permit them to communicate directly with and learn from industry practitioners, an activity common only to this era. The role of social media in fostering creative learning, giving opportunities for exposure and encouraging positive participation among creative students on social media is also seen as a catalyst for uplifting students' employability. This paper offers views of creative practitioners on the use of social media among creative arts students. Data for this study were collected through in-depth interview sessions with five creative industry practitioners. While the practitioners thought that social media were a good platform for creative learning, sharing and networking, they also expressed their concerns about the skills and attitude of creative arts students for enhancing creative productivity. The paper argues that creative arts students need to fully utilise the features available in social media, leading to better opportunities amid uncertainties surrounding employability.
Attitude, creative arts students, creative practitioners, skills, social media
This paper analyses the English language needs of service technicians in the pest control industry. The paper aims to provide a detailed understanding of the communication requirements in the workplace in order to develop a language course appropriate for their needs. In the pest control industry, service technicians are known to be the first point of contact with the customers. The nature of their job involves servicing customers' premises either weekly, bi-weekly or monthly. This calls for interaction with customers, which requires the ability to perform communicative functions to address customer inquiries and handle their requests and complaints. This paper utilises a needs analysis questionnaire for data collection. The questionnaire was administered to 20 service technicians in the Klang Valley. The result indicates the service technicians are often involved in communication activities: introduction; describing services, processes and people; telephone communication; responding to complaints and; giving suggestions and providing advice that relates to pest control. The findings also reveal that the essential skills that pest control service technicians need for efficient job performance are listening and speaking skills; thus, any course to enhance English language proficiency among this group of service providers should centre on these two skills.
Communication, curriculum design, needs analysis, pest control industry, service technician
English, once hailed for its supremacy, has now diverged from its singularity with the emergence of World Englishes and embarked on the nativisation of other varieties of English including Sri Lankan English (SLE). The current study focusses on the functional shift and lexico-semantic variation of the interjection here in SLE speech. Primary data for this study consisted of threads taken from Facebook and questionnaires distributed among 30 participants who are fluent speakers of SLE. Apart from its original usage in Standard British English as a demonstrative adjective, the findings show that here is used in SLE speech for diverse other functions such as conversation opener, discourse marker and even address form. Its nativisation has been fortified by socio-cultural implications with regard to its usage. Gender plays a predominant role in this process of nativisation as female participants tend to use here with higher frequency, whereas males often replace it with other address forms. Findings also show how power relations become significant because using the interjection here when conversing with people higher in status is considered disrespectful. This study demonstrates the nativisation and endonormative stabilisation of the word here leading to a functional shift resulting in semantic variation.
Endonormative stabilisation, functional shift, lexico-semantic variation, nativisation, Sri Lankan English, World Englishes
Speculative fiction is able to foresee the changes of the environment and social strata via imitation of future society (Gough, 2003; Otto, 2012). With the same intention, Margaret Atwood makes use of an alternative natural medication, maggot therapy, as an important recuperative method to cure physical lesions and injuries in The Year of the Flood (2009). Historically, although once a common practice among healers of antiquity, maggot therapy has since been discarded from medical context, partly due to its carnivorous and parasitic nature. The present paper intends to discuss the implication of this kind of natural therapy and its sense of monstrosity and grotesqueness as presented in Atwood's novel. In using this therapy as motif, the novel illustrates the grotesque through exaggeration and gory and monstrous features, which lead not only the characters but also the readers to experience disorientation due to the unfamiliar state of savagery. With a focus on relevant theories of the grotesque, the study aims to highlight how the monstrosity inherent in maggot therapy renders the grotesque in this novel, that is, by juxtaposing savagery and culture and evoking repulsion and attraction.
Grotesque, Margaret Atwood, maggot therapy, uncanny, monstrous
Competition among telecommunications service operators has been increasing significantly. "Quality," where it related to mobile telecommunications services, is an important keyword in the competition. This study aims to determine the effect of interactivity between operators and their customers as well as the influence of interactivity on the service quality of mobile operators. The sub-variables used for the interactivity (as independent variables) include control activities, interactivity responsibilities and non-verbal interactivities information. Quality of service is treated as a dependent variable. Sampling was conducted using the non-probability purposive sampling technique. Regression analysis showed that the quality of service is strongly influenced by the interactivity responsibilities sub-variable. On the other hand, the non-verbal interactivities information sub-variable had the least influence. The results indicate interactivity responsibility is considered to be the variable providing most influence on service quality, while the least influencing variable is the non-verbal information interactivity variable. The determination factor is 52.8%, meaning that interactivity is just 52.8% of the required variables for influencing the quality of services, while the rest, which is 47.2%, is another variable that is not covered in the model.
Control activities, non-verbal information activities, quality of service, responsibility activities
Human Resource Management is one of the most important factors in a company's operations. When changes happen, employees need to adapt to the work environment and this can influence many aspects of employees' working life. The performance of employees will influence the performance of an organisation and one of the factors that influences employee performance is employee motivation. The changes can be through communication and culture differences. Television broadcasting service companies must focus on their human resource because they employ a large number of workers. There are 19 major television companies in Indonesia. The broadcasting industry is one of the pioneers of private television stations in Indonesia. Media Citra Nusantara owns RCTI, Global TV and iNews TV. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of organisational communication and organisational culture on employee motivation and its impact on employee performance in the broadcasting industry. The method of data collection used in this study is the questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to 300 employees. The data analysis method used in this study is path analysis. The results of this study shows that organisational culture does not influence employee performance, while organisational communication and employee motivation influence employee performance.
The purpose of this research is to improve the dimension analysis of SWOT with group decision-making. This study analyses the internal and external environment of companies for formulating alternative strategies during the planning process of strategy formulation. The main focus of this research is to choose the best alternative strategy based on each factor and sub-factor of the SWOT analysis, where the strengths and opportunities are treated as advantages and weaknesses and threats are treated as costs. This research was completed using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Fuzzy Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The incorporation of the ANP and Fuzzy TOPSIS methods is proposed at the end of the study and can be applied with a SWOT analysis to formulate the best alternative strategy.
ANP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, group decision-making, multi-criteria determination analysis, SWOT analysis
The complexity and interconnected patterns of change in the 21st century have resulted in significant transformation in Iran. During the last two decades, much academic effort from a variety of disciplines went into trying to understand, examine and predict these transformations. However, there are no in-depth studies on these profound social and cultural changes as exemplified in global scientific productions. Using a bibliometric approach, we present a comprehensive study of the image of the social sciences in Iran based on the search item "Iran's Social Sciences" in the Web of Science (WoS). The data were collected from Web of Science's Core Collections between 2000 and 2017 and was limited to document-type articles in the category of Social Science Citation Index (SSCI). Collection efforts resulted in 4,666 documents being retrieved. The majority of the documents were published in English and were written by Iranian authors. The results of this study show that international collaboration through networking and co-authorship was lower than the global average. In terms of content, health- and medical-related concepts and themes were dominant in overall publications. Given this remarkable insight, more collaboration between sociologists in Iran with scholars from other countries is needed to better highlight the desired issues and topics. Further research might focus on the current 'business models' of publishing. While we advise launching more scientific journals at the global level, it is important to evaluate whether international business models of publishing are really encouraging or if they pose unnecessary bias and restrictions on knowledge development and participation of Iranian world-class sociologists.
Bibliometric, image, scientific production, social sciences, sociologists
This paper aims at examining the effect of e-Tailer quality on customers' e-satisfaction, which in turn impacts the creation of customers' attitudinal loyalty. The study uses an empirical survey with the active participation of 283 respondents. Using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis, this study indicates that e-Tailer quality has a positive correlation and significant effect on the formation of customers' e-satisfaction. Furthermore, e-satisfaction is positively correlated and has a substantial impact on the formation of attitude-based customer loyalty. Interestingly, e-Tailer quality does not have a fully significant effect on the formation of attitudinal loyalty. Only platform quality dimensions have a considerable impact on the formation of attitudinal loyalty. Third-party e-Marketplace companies are alleged to have a significant influence on the creation of consumer-based loyalty in the realm of C2C business in Indonesia.
e-Tailer quality, e-satisfaction, attitudinal loyalty, digital ecosystem, Indonesia, platform quality, e-commerce
This study aimed at finding the most consistent errors of 42 medical students before and after they attended a writing course. The students were asked to write about assigned topics both at the beginning and e end of their writing course before Surface Strategy Taxonomy was used to analyse their assignment. To see if there is a significant difference between errors made by students before and after their writing instruction, paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon test were run. The results indicated that the most consistent error, both in test and retest, was omission. Furthermore, the number of errors in the retest reduced significantly compared with the number of errors in test which could be, at the first glance, interpreted as satisfactory training of writing skills. However, when the significant difference between each type of errors (omission, misordering, addition and misformation) was examined, the results showed that except for the omission error, the reduction of all the other types of errors was not significant. This result could help writing instructors in this university to know the areas of language that their students are struggling with and devote more time and energy to overcome their weakness. Furthermore, teaching and learning writing would be more purposeful.
Error analysis, English composition, most consistent errors, surface strategy taxonomy, writing
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between health care and tourism sectors to economic growth in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Panel ARDL test was employed to investigate their long- and short-run relationships by examining annual time series data from 1995â€“2016. Results show a significant positive short- and long-run relationship between development of healthcare and tourism sectors to economic growth in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. As stated in the ASEAN Tourism Strategic Plan 2016-2025, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand should work together to promote ASEAN as a health tourism destination to the world.
The current focus on school leader preparation around the world is based on the belief that school leaders make a difference in both effectiveness and efficiency of schooling. This study is part of an evaluative case study on the National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH) programme in Malaysia. It seeks to investigate the perceptions of ten incumbent secondary school principals who are graduates of the NPQH programme on the informal leadership learning they acquired from the time they graduated to the roles they played as principals. The study investigated informal leadership learning in the professional setting at school, professional setting outside school as well as leadership learning outside the professional setting. The findings of this qualitative inquiry point towards a great deal of informal leadership learning in the professional setting at school. Whilst informal leadership learning in the professional setting outside of school was reportedly derived from the active role played by the respondents themselves, very little leadership learning was acquired outside the professional setting. The implication of this study for the preparation of school heads in Malaysia is discussed and proposals made towards optimising the benefits of informal leadership learning for aspiring heads.
Headship Preparatory Training, Informal leadership learning, Leadership learning, School leadership