Mathematics self-efficacy is an important personal attribute and self-belief that can influence students' learning and performance in the subject, as supported by the Social Cognitive Theory. Literature review has shown that due to the scarcity of research on primary school students' mathematics self-efficacy, there is a lack of validated instrument to measure this psychological construct in the local school context. This study sets out to fill the literature gap by examining the validity and reliability of the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ) (14 items). The contents of the instrument were validated before the instrument was administered to 100 primary students. The sample size was recommended based on a 1:5 subject-item ratio. Findings from the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) suggested that mathematics self-efficacy is a unidimensional construct. It is highly reliable and can be used to gauge primary school students' mathematics self-efficacy in a Malaysian school setting. The educational implications of this study are discussed in this paper.
Extending the traditional learning experiences of adult students into new learning experiences can potentially be enriching. This article reports on part of an investigation done for a Master's dissertation (Van Tonder, 2015) and focuses on the experiences of students, tutors, and institutional management when employing a hybrid study approach in adult learning. A qualitative research approach, namely a case study, was used at both a South African and an American higher education institution. The study finds that in the move toward a society where students are interconnected, adult students intentionally search for educational settings that support their way of learning. Moreover, a redress and reform of training and education in South Africa, especially with the integration of technology is needed in order to adapt to a changing global economy.
This exploratory study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived teacher self-disclosure, writing performance, and gender of Malaysian English as a Second Language (ESL) undergraduates. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 75 students who had enrolled in a university writing course at the end of their terms. Fifty-seven students had responded. The Perceived Teachers' Self-Disclosure Scale, which indexes three aspects of teacher self-disclosure namely amount, relevance, and negativity was used to determine the undergraduates' perceptions of their perceived teachers' self-disclosure. Scores for writing performance were gathered from the results obtained by the students in their final examination for the writing course. The relationship between perceived teacher self-disclosure and writing performance was analyzed using the Pearson Product-moment Correlations test. The difference between perceived teacher self-disclosure and gender was analyzed using the independent sample t-test. The results showed a small, positive correlation between two aspects of teacher self-disclosure (amount and relevance) and writing performance. The results from this study demonstrated that ESL students perceived that relevant teacher self-disclosure, relating to course content, had important implications for their writing performance. Thus, teacher self-disclosure is an important element of classroom instruction that could be used to enhance content knowledge, especially in idea generating, self-voice and opinion among ESL students in a writing class. The results also showed a significant difference in one dimension of teacher self-disclosure, negativity, and gender. Further comprehensive studies should be conducted to gauge the implications of perceived teachers' self-disclosure to the teaching and learning aspects in ESL writing classrooms.
In all professions, workers are exposed to manifestations of stress that if maintained, can result in the Burnout Syndrome, or Professional Exhaustion Syndrome, a psychosocial phenomenon that has increased in the last decades and which consists of a series of physical, emotional and behavioral symptoms. The present study sought to contribute to a growing body of research examining which variables affect the aforementioned syndrome. In order to accomplish this, a questionnaire, created ad hoc, was administered and empirical data was collected from 230 Spanish secondary school teachers. This data was tested with difference testing and the multiple regression method. The results revealed that there were more differences in burnout regarding the work-related variables than the sociodemographic ones. Specifically, the working situation and the relations with their colleagues and the board of the center were found to have a significant influence on burnout. The implications of findings for administrators are also discussed.
This study examined the critical thinking skills of first year students at a public university in Oman to determine whether these skills were adequately developed at the school level. An adapted version of the Cornell Class-Reasoning Test Form X was administered to 60 students who had just graduated high school and entered the university. Descriptive analysis of test results revealed that participants had failed to master four of the five principles assessed by the test's item groups, while receiving scores that suggested neither mastery nor failure to master the remaining principle. The overall average correct percentage for the sample of 45.8% was comparable to results from grade 4 students in the United States offered by the test creators. Independent samples t-tests indicated statistically significant differences on overall test scores based on gender and level of study in the English foundation program, although no differences based on age were found. The paper concludes by arguing that critical thinking needs to be better integrated into the curriculum in Oman's education system in order to adequately prepare learners for the demands of university study and the workforce.
Critical thinking, Cornell Class-Reasoning Test, EFL, Oman
Motivation plays an important role in students' learning and academic performance. It is believed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation contributes in the learning process in different ways. This study examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on student science achievement using the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data. Furthermore, the study explored how intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation function across different cultures. The sample consisted of eighth grade students from the United States, England, Malaysia, and Singapore. Students from the Western culture value extrinsic motivation higher than intrinsic motivation in science learning. The findings also showed that students with high intrinsic motivation perform better than students with low intrinsic motivation across the four countries. Positive relationship between motivation and science achievement supported motivation theory in which higher motivation led to higher achievement scores. Students with intrinsic motivation obtain higher score in science compared to extrinsically motivated students. This study also showed cultural differences affect students' types of motivation. Furthermore, this study could be practically valuable in providing insight on understanding the motivation levels in enhancing students' science achievement.
This research aimed to examine the key factors and indicators of learning leadership for secondary school principals in the northeast of Thailand. The researchers conceptualized learning leadership indicators to form a framework by analyzing documents and related previous research, coupled with interviewing five academic experts. This is followed by a survey of 780 school principals with the intention of testing the goodness-of-fit of the identified learning leadership indicators with the empirical data. Finally, the researchers analyzed the approach and guidelines for developing learning leadership skills. This study utilized a mixed mode method. The results disclosed that a total of 60 indicators were identified from nine key factors. The structural relationship model of learning leadership indicators was found to be consistent with the empirical data, with Χ² =344.241, df = 307, Χ²/df = 1.1213, CFI = 0.996, TLI = 0.995, RMSEA = 0.019, and SRMR = 0.019. The guidelines of the nine key factors with high factor loading indicators, include the criteria for enhancing the aims and objectives, the strategies involved by self-directed learning, workshops, training, benchmarking, and action research. The developmental procedure encompasses the identification of need assessment, strategic planning formulation, technique selection, implementation, and monitoring and assessment. The findings contributed significantly to the knowledge with regards to proposing guidelines and approaches that will guide secondary school principals in their quest to become efficient learning leaders.
Guidelines for the development of learning leadership, key factors, learning leadership indicators, secondary school principals
Easy edutainment games are usually found on the internet, which reinforce different mental skills in users/players. These games that are mostly originated from card and board games of ancient times are able to enhance complex mental skills and concepts in their users with simple yet subtle methods. Different researches have used different criteria to assess video games; however, no specific study has attempted to analyze the educational aspects of free, simple, and low volume internet games that are made by non-famous and non-mainstream game producers; the games that absorb a more extensive population of players at more different situations of everyday life. The study, on the basis of the cognitive theory of learning, targets these easily accessible games that are made by very small budgets and are often played as hobbies by people from different age groups, compared to high-budget games that target specific players of specific skills and ages. This study resulted from a research on 100 free and easy to access internet computer games, attempts to examine them on the basis of a list of mental skills from the previously available literature. The outcome of the study is two comparative tables, the results of which show that free, simple, and low volume internet games also play a great role in promoting mental and feeling-related skills and should be taken more seriously than mere hobbies.
Computer & video games, edutainment games, game, mental skills
Teaching Practice is a course in which student teachers were asked to teach real students in schools. At an English language education program, this special course requires various activities, one of which is teaching English in real classes to apply English teaching skills. As a prerequisite of enrolling in Teaching Practice, the student teachers must pass Micro Teaching, a course in which student teachers teach English to their peers. Both Micro Teaching and Teaching Practice generally aim at putting theory into practice, providing valuable experience for them. This paper is a report of a study on the interest in teaching experienced by student teachers in Indonesia. The study as a part of a bigger research project, which was related to perspectives on teaching practice, reveals that to a certain extent teaching interest is influenced by an on-campus teaching demonstration and real teaching in schools. It somewhat exposes that most student teachers are encouraged by the practical components of a teacher education program. Actions should then be taken to advance the teaching interest of the 'minority' especially after Teaching Practice. Otherwise, their interest may be destructively influential in spite of the training efforts provided by the teacher education program.
Micro teaching, student teachers, teacher cognition, teaching practice
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects on the learning outcomes of veterinary medicine students after the intervention of constructivism, metacognitive, and neurocognitive based (CMEN) and traditional teaching models to the experimental and control groups respectively. The total participants were 84 students from Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, a public university in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. They were equally distributed to 42 students in each group on a voluntary basis. Researchers employed experimental research pre-test and post-test control group design. Results of this study showed that there was no significant difference between groups on the dependent variables before the intervention. However, all the dependent variables namely medical terminology and anatomical knowledge achievement, metacognitive ability, and working memory ability had significant differences between groups after the intervention. The developed teaching model has been proven to successfully promote students' learning outcomes. As a result, the CMEN teaching model can enhance students' abilities in understanding medical terminology, anatomical knowledge, raise their metacognitive ability, and promote their working memory ability.
Anatomical knowledge, constructivism, metacognitive and neurocognitive-based teaching model, medical terminology, metacognitive ability, traditional teaching model, working memory ability
In view of the dubiety caused by the concurrent use of suffix -t and -ed among Malaysians in forming the participial adjective, local newspaper texts were analysed in order to identify the preferred suffix variant used by Malaysian writers. Using corpus-based methodology, 12 predetermined words that can take suffix -t and -ed were generated from the selected e-newspaper prior to analysing them using WordSmith Tools 5 (WST5). The 12 words that belong to the adjective word class were categorised in accordance with the word form (-t and -ed) before comparison between both suffix variants was made. Findings revealed that while both suffix -t and -ed were used by Malaysians, the overall figure for the -t form is higher, thus indicating that Malaysians generally prefer to use the suffix -t to form the participial adjective. Nevertheless, the insertion of suffix -ed and -t to irregular verbs as a means to reflect adjectival function could possibly be deemed as a form of linguistic explicitness exhibited by a local variety. Because language is constantly evolving, pedagogically, educators should consider adopting the descriptive grammar and be flexible in accepting the use of both suffixes.
Frequency, participial adjective, suffix, word form
Metadiscourse features are the way in which writers express their opinion and achieve not only coherence but also cohesion in their texts. Although metadiscourse features are widely employed, it is sometimes the case that writers tend to use them inappropriately, resulting in incoherent and ineffective texts. A review of the relevant literature reveals that a significant body of research has been conducted on metadiscourse features in various academic contexts. However, studies targetted at news settings are still limited. Hence, this study adapts Dafouz-Milne's model to identify the types, functions and linguistic realisations of metadiscourse features that are commonly used in business news. Quantitative data were collected from 15 business news articles from "Star Online" and "Focus Malaysia", respectively from September 2014 until June 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six business news writers individually. This paper aims to compare textual and interpersonal functions and their linguistic realisations to see whether business news in "Star Online" or "Focus Malaysia" has more engaging content to create awareness for writers.
Business news, Dafouz-Milne's model, metadiscourse features, writers
Genre analysis studies on academic writing are mostly limited to analysis of articles. There is need for studies on undergraduate students' Final-Year Projects in the context of Malaysia. This study presents an analysis of 10 Final-Year Projects of English Language by final-year undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. Drawing on Yang and Allison's Moves and Steps model in the Results and Discussion sections, this study investigates the move structures used by the final-year undergraduates in their Results and Discussion chapters. The qualitative method was followed to collect and analyse the data. The data were collected purposively from Bachelor of Arts (English Language) students. The samples were analysed thematically by the researchers. Conclusions were drawn based on the rhetorical moves presented by the undergraduates in their Results and Discussion chapters. It was found that the moves most used were 'Reporting results' and 'Commenting on results'. The frequencies of both moves were higher compared with the frequency of 'Preparatory/Background information' and 'Summarising results'. The findings are expected to guide lecturers in designing instructional materials for teaching academic writing that focus on rhetorical structures and to raise students' consciousness of the structure of a well-written Results and Discussion chapter.
Critical thinking plays a vital role in enhancing the quality of students and education all over the world. Thus, educators need to be able to provide a critical thinking and learning environment in the classroom. This research centres on the critical thinking application in the classroom for the English Language programme in the Academy of Language Studies (ALS) UiTM Shah Alam â€“ English for Professional Communication (LG240). This study aims to investigate how English lecturers and students in the ALS perceive their critical thinking application in class. Additionally, the study investigates if there is a significant difference between the perception of these two groups regarding critical thinking application in the classroom. The study adapts a framework that focusses on seven dimensions of critical thinking: analysing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge. The findings reveal that there was only one dimension that showed a significant difference between the lecturers and the students' perception of critical thinking application in the classroom, that is, 'transforming knowledge'. From this study, it can be generally concluded that both lecturers and students in the ALS share the same perception of the application of critical thinking in their classroom.
Dystopian literature is a genre that imagines a futuristic universe in which oppressive societal control and the illusion of a perfect society are expressed. One famous novel of this genre is The Hunger Games written by Suzanne Collins (2008). Considering its strong social and pedagogical influences, an analytical study was considered necessary to investigate the linguistic modality of the novel. Modality refers to a speaker's opinion concerning the truth of a proposition. Hence, the primary goal of this study is to examine the linguistic manifestations of modality to identify point of view in the novel by determining the dominant modality shading. Simpson's (2005) framework was used as the analytical tool to conduct the analysis. The results indicate that epistemic modality is the most prevalent modality used in the novel and this has provided the novel with a negative shading. Furthermore, this accentuates notions of alienation and confusion within the narrative, by highlighting the narrator's struggles to make sense of what is happening. The results indicate that the narration reflects the character.
The preservation and reproduction of a source metaphorical expression in the target language is a problematic challenge for translators. The aim of this study is to examine the translation of emotive metaphorical expressions of sadness from the Persian novel "Savushun" into English. Emotive metaphorical expressions relating to sadness from the source text and two target texts are identified. Subsequently, the conceptual metaphors underlying the metaphorical expressions in the source text and the target texts are investigated. Using the framework of metaphor identification procedures (MIP), and conceptual metaphor theory (CMT), the study attempted to identify the patterns used in the translation. The particular concern is whether the translations of the metaphorical expressions from the source text are instantiations of same conceptual metaphor as in the source text; instantiations of a different conceptual metaphor; or the neutralization of the metaphor. This paper presents the preliminary results of the translation patterns of metaphors that have been identified.
After some years, vocabulary research has once again found its fundamental position in pedagogical studies as an inseparable component of language instruction. However, many studies conducted have focused more on vocabulary learning strategies rather than explicit instruction of these techniques. The present study, though, seeks to find out whether teaching vocabulary learning strategies is effective in enhancing the knowledge of EFL learners. Two vocabulary tests of Lex30 and Vocabulary Size Test were administered to 51 intermediate Iranian EFL learners. By employing a mixed method approach, five distinct semi-structured interview sessions were held. The results of independent samples t-tests revealed the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary learning strategies as the experimental group outperformed the control group. Moreover, the analysis of transcribed data suggested that learners showed positive attitude toward instruction of vocabulary learning strategies. Finally, some pedagogical implications for teaching vocabulary are offered.
Intellectual capital is anticipated as the key factors that could contribute to universities performance and create value for globally competitive advantage. Accordingly, this study investigates the role of intellectual capital and its elements: namely human capital, structural capital and relational capital, on the public universities performance in Indonesia. A total of 177 respondents representing from 8 top public universities in Indonesia were involved in the study. The Partial Least Square (PLS) was used to test the hypotheses. The result found that there was a significant relationship of Intellectual Capital (IC) and its elements on universities performance. Conclusively, it is wise to recommend to the university to invest in intellectual capital consisting of human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Also, these elements should be used as a new model for measurement of the university or higher education institution performance so that it provides added value to strengthen their competitiveness ability.
Human capital, intellectual capital, relational capital, structural capital, universities performance
The growth of entrepreneurship throughout the globe has forced policy makers to reconsider their plans. Universities have been pushed to change their missions and enforce their transition into entrepreneurial academia. When enterprise awareness is formed in students, they are preferably to develop entrepreneurial mindset and behave in enterprising and entrepreneurial ways such as to form new venture creation. Main question is, do our graduates possess the right entrepreneurial mindset to pursue entrepreneurship? This study explores the demand for services that enable such transitions from two points of view of service seeker and provider. A qualitative study was conducted among the undergraduate students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The results shed light onto the mindset of students. The majorities are not recognizing themselves as creative and resourceful, and are still caught up in their student mindset and status-quo. However, there is small portion that had ideas to start their own businesses but still unclear. This finding helps the university to evaluate their entrepreneurial efforts.
Entrepreneurial mindset, entrepreneurial university, new academia
Startup progress is recognized as a vital driver to sustain economies. A technology business incubator (TBI) is one of the devices to serve it. Recent studies have found that one of the TBI's key success factors in assisting startups' survival is knowledge management (KM), particularly knowledge acquisition (KA). This study aims to examine startups' behaviors toward their KA that occurred between before and after accessing early-stage incubation (ESI) of TBIs. The study used a qualitative case survey research (Yin, 2013) for five selected cases of leading TBIs in Thailand, namely PSU, KKU, SUT, NSTDA, and STEP. Purposive sampling was used with data gathered from a total of 114 startups who were incubated from 2014 to 2016. Data were collected using primary data through a survey method with semi-structured questionnaires. A summative content analysis, validity, and reliability were used and tested. A conceptual model was created from reviewing recent studies and theories, including resource-based view, knowledge-based view, and KA theories to explore purposes. Findings show that startups' behaviors toward KA before accessing ESI need to acquire technical knowledge through online channels using "search engines" and "target websites" with more frequencies of KA. Startups' demand toward KA after accessing ESI is the need to acquire business rather than technical knowledge through both offline and online channels regarding methods related to different knowledge sources with more frequency. This shows both academic and practical contributions conducted at leading TBIs.
Early-stage incubation, knowledge acquisition, startup, technology business incubator
Green Office is an environmental service for offices and in the recent decades, there is a growing concern about the green office management standard in Thailand with its goal as to create a healthy environment, conserve energy, and reduce pollution by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and offices' ecological footprint. With its help, workplaces are able to reduce their burden on the environment, achieve savings and slow down climate change. It is a practical environmental management system for the offices applicable both in a small or large organization, in private companies or the public sector, easy to implement in urban environments and which help in reducing the ecological footprint and greenhouse gas emissions of the office. This paper describes the purpose, principles, features, procedure for setting up, and management of green office standard in Thailand with the main aim of describing the growing importance of green office due to the impact of climate change. It also aims to promote sustainable practices, apply the Green Office principles in organizations and offices so as to reduce the emission released by activities in the offices. The study was carried out through EDFR procedure by selecting a panel of 17 experts to get the detail data and opinion for management of green office in Thailand. The study results or contributes to the rationalization and mitigation of climate change through following the adaptive green office strategies and it brings out the importance of human factors and behavioral practices at workplaces and offices.
Behavioral practices, EDFR, environmental management, green office, workplace
The empirical paper entitled "Profiling Children as Consumers: An Indian Study" is focused on the varied aspects that characterize a young consumer's role in family decision-making process. Through different variables: child's involvement at various buying stages, product type and various tactics used by children, distinct consumer profiling of young children is attempted. Survey data collected from 10 schools in India were examined with a series of factor analysis and mean scores. In this scope it is important to draw the commercial profile of young kids. Detailed analysis included principal component factor analysis, ranking through descriptive analysis and with the help of radar diagram; children's consumer profiles are identified. Using these profiles, the firms can develop insights about their target markets and formulate effective marketing strategies. The implications are very insightful. The developmental stages of children and their distinct characteristics (as a very active participant and influencer in family buying) will enable researchers to inquire them more thoroughly. From an academic perspective, a latest field of research is unwrapped to be explored.
This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire on Malaysian students' knowledge and belief toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening. A cross sectional study was conducted among 792 female undergraduate students in selected public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Convergent and discriminant validity tests were used for assessing construct validity of the questionnaire while the internal reliability of the instrument was checked by Cronbach's alpha. The average age of respondents was 22 years (21.77± 1.20). Majority of them were single (96.8%), Malay (91.9%), and Muslim (94.6%). This instrument had a good face and content validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for Health Belief Model Scales ranged between 0.73-0.83, indicating acceptable levels of internal consistency. The Kappa value for the knowledge part ranged between 0.52-0.90, also showing acceptable reliability. The developed instrument indicated good construct validity and reliability for Malaysian female students. This instrument can help health care planners and providers to measure levels of knowledge and beliefs of Malaysian women toward breast cancer before planning appropriate intervention.
Breast cancer, breast cancer screening, Malaysia, validity
Postpartum depression increases the rate of complications for mother and infant. Few studies on postpartum depression have been undertaken on pregnant women with a low socioeconomic status. The present study aims to recognize the prevalence of postpartum depression and association with risk factors in low socioeconomic populations. Predicting risk factors during pregnancy for postpartum depression are so important. 451 low income pregnant women referred to health care centres, participated in a prospective study. Questionnaires covered demographics and, obstetrics and psychological characteristics were collected by interviews. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to define depression in pregnancy as a sum score ≥ 10 and in postpartum as a sum score ≥ 13 at gestational week 28. The mean participant age was 25 years. Most of them had moderate perceived stress (61%), low self-esteem (63.2%), low perceived social support (67.6%), and low quality of marital relationship (43.5%). Fear related to childbirth was high in more than half of respondents (50.8%) and 58.9% had prenatal depression. The frequency of postnatal depression was 39% in participants. Those with postpartum depression had lower self-esteem scores, higher perceived stress and higher childbirth related fear in both mothers with postpartum depression and mothers without it. The prevalence of depression in pregnancy was higher in low socio-economic primigravidea from Iran. The increased risk persisted after adjustment for risk factors.
This study examines the relationships between the use of sexually explicit material, sexual intention, and sexual behaviour in a sample of 189 sexually experienced adolescents (aged 16-17) in Malaysia. Additionally, this study investigates the mediating role of sexual intention on the relationship between the use of Sexual Explicit Internet Media (SEIM) and sexual behaviour. A self-administered questionnaire focusing on the use of SEIM scale, Youth Pre-coital and Sexual Intentions Scale, and Sexual Behaviour Assessment measured adolescents' use of SEIM, sexual intention, and sexual behaviour. The results demonstrate that the use of SEIM positively correlates with adolescents' sexual intention and sexual behaviour. Increasing engagements in sexually-related behaviour reveal an increase in sexual intentions. Findings also denote that higher exposure to SEIM promotes sexual intention, which in turn increases engagement in sexually-related behaviour. In the attempt to control sexual arousal among adolescents, prevention and intervention programmes which deal with sexuality should consider the role of Internet media and the development of healthy cognitive processes.
Adolescents, sexual behaviour, sexual intention, sexual internet media
Accounting and reporting in awqaf operations are directly linked to awqafmutawalli's (awqaf manager or administrator) accountability. Mutawalli's accountability is a pressing issue as it is inextricably linked to awqaf institution's sustainability and survival. Being a manager to awqaf assets, mutawalli's accountability is therefore expected to influence donators' confidence and hence their continuous financial support. It is, hence, timely that mutawalli's accountability from the acute dimensions of accounting and reporting are explored and examined. This effectively provides a basis for a reality check regarding the necessary improvements. Consistent with the above premise, this study explores the current accounting and reporting practices of two distinct mutawallis, operating on different operational platforms. Utilizing multiple research techniques comprising both interviews and record reviews, the preliminary empirical results are arguably informative and revealing, systematically providing an appropriate basis for a reality check on mutawalli's accountability. This provides an improvement framework on waqf management to other mutawallis in Malaysia as well as filling the sparse academic literature on awqaf accountability in the acute context of accounting and reporting.
Accounting and reporting practices, awqaf, disclosure
The study aimed at finding out the impact of applying modern financial analysis tools on detecting fraudulent practices in financial statements of listed banks at Damascus stock exchange (DSE). Traditional tools, such as individual (univariate) financial ratios and trend analyses, proved to have lag indicators whereas modern tools, such as quantitative statistical models, have a prediction power and searching for fraudulent practices in businesses. Two models of the independent variable, two types of fraudulent practices of the dependent variable, and one moderating variable were stated. The study adopted a descriptive and analytical approach by analyzing financial statements of a sample of 11 Syrian banks using statistical approaches to test the research hypotheses. Data of this research were gathered based on a series period from 2010 2014, and processed using the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS). The main results of the study are (1) There are impacts of financial analysis tools represented by LEAM2003 and the MJ1995 models on detecting fraudulent practices in listed banks at Damascus stock exchange. This is explained by the existence of many accounting distortions leading to fraudulent accounting practices, such distorting expenses and revenues classifications and deferring these items for future periods (fraud accounting) or recognizing recurring and nonrecurring future expenses this year with the aim of reducing the current year income (big bath accounting), exploiting the flexibility of IFRS and twitting governance procedures and instructions. (2) There is a positive relationship between the bank size and fraudulent practices where management and accountants of banks are able to conceal accounting treatments in order to accommodate local environments. (3) It is more suitable for the Syrian context to apply quantitative statistical models that are more effective in detecting accounting fraudulence compared with behavioral implications and other non-statistical models. The research recommended a way of detecting fraudulent accounting practices by reducing the gap between the tax-based income and the accounting-based income, and applying the benchmarking strategy, such as Sarbanes Oxley Act.
Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life for millennia and it has been difficult for the societies to understand and restrain its use. Health problems associated with alcohol consumption have reached alarming levels, and alcohol use contributes to a wide range of diseases, health conditions and high-risk behaviors, mental disorders, loss of productivity, road traffic injuries, liver diseases and spousal violence. Although the prevalence of alcoholism among rural males has been reported, there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of various types of alcoholism and problem drinking along with the psychosocial and economic aspects of drinking, especially in this part of the region. To highlight these problems the various types of alcoholism and problem have been extensively analyzed in this study.
Alcoholism, consequences, effect of alcoholism, health problems
This paper examines the long-and short-term impacts of country risk on FDI using co-integration and error correction models in GCC countries for the period from 2002 to 2015. We use three proxies for country risk: corruption, regulatory quality and political stability and absence of violence. The evidence suggests a positive long-term impact of fighting corruption and improving political stability and absence of violence on the attractiveness of host countries to FDI. Surprisingly, quality of regulations variable negatively affects FDI. The results of our study suggest that policy makers could attract more FDI to GCC countries through directing efforts toward combatting corruption and enhancing political stability which may help GCC economies attract more FDI.
Country risk, corruption, FDI, political stability, regulatory quality
Malaysia is becoming an increasingly captivating market for international textile retailers. Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility in textile and apparel industries in Malaysia is necessary because the industry has diversified itself to value-chain, from an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) producer to own brand and design supplier. There are not many studies found on approaches to implementation, drivers, and barriers for Corporate Social Responsibility in the textile sector. The objective of this paper is to examine and analyze approaches, initiatives, adoption, drivers and barriers to CSR implementation in textile and apparel industries in Malaysia. Through this study, the paper aims to understand the perspectives of the CSR practice in Malaysia and advance potential areas that could assist textile and apparel firm management to understand the hurdles preventing CSR implementation. The results of the study indicate that CSR practices among the textile, knitting and garment industry are mostly based on the stakeholders' model widely seen in the Western world. This study further reports the potential challenges of CSR practices in these industries.
Barriers, Corporate Social Responsibility, drivers, Malaysia, textile
In the early 2000s adolescents' media exposure in sub-Saharan Africa was reported as very low, but today growth in infrastructure, media technology and program appeal make a case for a reassessment of the situation. Given that communication particularly through the media is considered a major preventive strategy to addressing the spread of the epidemic, this study investigates the media exposure, knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) status of adolescent Islamiyya girls as potential mothers in Northeast Nigeria on HIV/AIDS as a predominantly Muslim society against the backdrop of earlier studies which showed that Muslim communities which were hitherto considered protected, were now witnessing a rapid evidence of an advancing HIV/AIDS epidemic. On the Hierarchy of Effects theory, hypotheses were posed to test relationships between HIV/AIDS media exposure and knowledge, favorable attitudes and safe practice among the girls; mediation effect of HIV/ AIDS knowledge was verified. A survey was administered on a sample of 487 Islamiyya girls in Bauchi. The study finds that while mass media exposure is not a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS safe practice and favorable attitude, it is a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS knowledge. While HIV/AIDS knowledge is a significant predictor of both HIV/AIDS favorable attitude and safe practice. There was a significant mediation effect of HIV/AIDS knowledge on the effect of HIV/AIDS media exposure on HIV/ AIDS safe practice. It was thus concluded that media exposure is a necessary but not a sufficient precursor for HIV/AIDS safe practice.
Adolescent girls, attitude, HIV/AIDS, knowledge, mass media, practice
The issue of xenophobia has become a common phenomenon in South Africa, where significant numbers of innocent lives have been lost, properties worth millions of dollars destroyed, and many people displaced. The victims of these attacks were majorly black Africans. Surprisingly, the molestation and attacks originated from Africans and targeted at fellow Africans particularly the blacks. The ugly trend which has been linked to the parochial mindset among South Africans with the belief that the foreign nationals in their land are the cause of unemployment, poverty rate and spreading of deadly diseases in the country. Given this fact, it has become a notion within the country that foreigners have hijacked the socio-economic sector of South Africa and the solution was to frustrate the migrants out of the society. However, the attacks on Africans and Nigerians in particular is a barbaric and disturbing scenario which definitely has implications on the external relations of both countries (Nigeria and South Africa). Thus, it is cogent to explore the xenophobic violence in South Africa with special focus on Nigerians. The paper infers that Africans need to embrace tolerance and treat foreign nationals in their countries, irrespective of race or gender, with high sense of brotherliness to promote cooperation among the African States as well as enhance peace and development of the continent.
This research was to develop the concept of human security in the southern border provinces of Thailand. Its concept found by the researcher differed from many scholars and other organizations in some issues because each area marked its own different contexts. Human security needed developed within the contexts of each area. Reflecting the human security concept developed by Ministry of Social Development and Human Security, the Baldwin-based model was related to individual and community security while security for values covered the safety of lives and property, peace and a better quality of life. On the other hand, the security from threats involved being freed from fears of mass media, poverty, narcotics, influential smuggling groups, politics, insurgencies, local people, and the state. In tandem with these findings, security by what means revealed the two elements of the public sector and civilian sector. The public sector involved protection, empowerment, the improvement of local administrative processes and the improvement of policy process based on local areas in development. The civilian sector included involvements in activities, news report and self protection.
Development, human security concept, southern border provinces
The discussion on the literacy of Taqwa had been carried out for many centuries among Islamic scholars. However, empirical studies examining the concept of Taqwa as a construct at the fundamental level are rather scarce or almost non-existent. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to empirically analyze the traits of Taqwa within the context of the language of the Quran in surah Ali-'Imran, the third surah in the Holy Quran. The data for this study were obtained from surah Ali-'Imran using purposive sampling. A validity procedure was conducted for the extracted verses, which were inferred to reflect the traits of Taqwa in the selected Surah. The data were analyzed using manifest and latent content analyses. The findings reveal 21 categories of traits of Taqwa presented in Surah Ali-'Imran, which are Tawheed, Patience, Tawbah, Consciousness of Allah, Gratefulness, Calling to Allah's Path (Da'awah), Obedience, Reliance on Allah, Steadfast/Istiqomah, Performing Solah, Do Good to Others, Zakat/Charity/Alms and Humbleness, Controlling/Suppressing Anger, Forgiving, Honesty, Keeping Promise, Praising Allah/Tasbeeh, Fear of Allah's Punishment and Travel to Learn. The major emphases are on believing in the Oneness of Allah/Tawheed and Doing Good Deeds. The findings help in building a model of traits of Taqwa as a general guideline for Muslims to better understand the meta-framework of traits of Taqwa of which model is useful in the teaching of the literacy of Taqwa in the educational realm.
Data in 2010 showed that the number of Moslems reached 87.18% of the entire population of Indonesia, meaning that the development of houses with the Islamic environment should have been considered. Houses with Islamic environment often found near the Islamic institution, such as Islamic Boarding school. The purpose of this study is to recognize the implementation of Islamic values in houses around Darul Istiqamah Islamic Boarding School in Maccopa, Maros. The study examined physical and non-physical aspects of houses around Islamic boarding school. The results revealed that Islamic values adhered by the residents among Darul Istiqamah Islamic Boarding School area, manifested physically in the houses' zoning system and non-physically through the daily behavior of the residents. The presence of Islamic boarding school could lead the local Moslem community to the implementation of Islamic values, both in physical and non-physical aspects.
In today's Russia, questions about national identity, nation-building, and nationwide integration are among the most discussed issues at the highest possible political levels. The issues become more acute in borderland regions, where more trans-border movement creates an environment for double or multiple cultural identities and diffuse representations about "ownness" and "otherness". Sociological surveys conducted in four regions of Russia (the Altai region, the Amur region, the Republic of Karelia, and the Jewish Autonomous Region, n=400) explored national identification, structuring ethnic diversity in Russia, and giving grounds for generalizations and stereotypes from the data collected with repertory grids and using hierarchical cluster analysis, PCA, Proctrustes analysis, and psychosemantic space building. Main results included elaboration of the original research tool, tested in the Russian borderland, description of Russians as they are perceived by borderland inhabitants, their relations with meta-ethnic groups associated with the Russian nation, and latent factors, influencing the assessment of people of different nationalities.
Organized prostitution has been growing in Surabaya City, and it has contributed to the growth of informal economy, as the main source of income for thousands of local people for decades. Using in-depth interviews with diverse informants, observation, and secondary data, this study shows that despite the advantages, the Indonesian Council of Islamic Scholars (MUI) perceives prostitution as an immoral attitude. On behalf of the Moslem community, they insisted the government remove it totally. Although the city government was doubted, with law enforcement supported by coordinated collective actions, it was finally able to close all the prostitution locations in the city in an authoritative manner. Subsequently, the city government provided empowerment programs for improving former procurers and prostitutes who were non-indigenous Surabaya residents, but it was unsuccessful, since it was insufficient and unsustainable to meet their needs, and it did not encompass all of them. Consequently, some of them still carried out their activities in secret, and many others moved out to other locations of the city and still conducted the same activities as prostitutes. The empowerment program for prostitution-impacted indigenous residents of Surabaya seems to be successful but it was in jeopardy since it was totally dependent on the policy made by the current mayor, personally. Therefore, their future might be at risk when she is not in the power anymore.
Cruise tourism has expanded to the Asian region, using larger cruise ships to serve new targets. Therefore, ports are one of the most important factors involved. Thus, the objective of this study is aimed at investigating and comparing cruise port management systems between Phuket and Singapore, employing quantitative research methods. The empirical findings showed that the top five biggest gaps regarding two cruise port management examples were port infrastructure, port facility, political stability, cruise tourism policy and cleanliness in rank. The results revealed that port management in Singapore was more efficient than in Phuket in most variables; however, tourism attractions, tourism activity, service providers, value for money, climate/sea conditions, and immigration formalities of Phuket were slightly better than that in Singapore.
ASEAN cruise port, cruise port comparison, efficiency of cruise port, Phuket, port management, Singapore
This research is to test the influence of the marketing mix dimension, which consists of product, price, promotion, and place,on destination image dimension, which consists of cognitive image and affective image. The data collecting used questionnaire with 282 respondents with accidental sampling technique.The result of the test showed that product, promotion, and place directly related to cognitive image. In addition,affective imageis also directly influenced by product, price andcognitive image. The result of the research also showed that promotion and location did not directly relate to affective Image. In addition, the price did not directly relate to Cognitive Image. The result of this research also showed that the marketing mix dimension related indirectly to Affective Image by the variable of cognitive image. Among all dimensions of marketing mix, it is product, promotion, and place that relate to cognitive image. While product and price relate to affective image indirectly.
Streets are an important part of open public spaces that reflect the character and the sense of place of cities. Streets have many functions that give them their sense of place in the cities, as well as reflect the character of cities by their physical characteristics. Due to the unfit development of street characteristics, changing some of them, and remove others, the sense of place is interrupted, thus, affecting the people's feelings and perception of the streets. This paper attempts to review the roles of the physical characteristics of commercial streets in giving the sense of place in city centers. The aim of the study is to determine theoretical framework of the roles of the physical characteristics of commercial streets in giving the sense of place in city centers. The paper reveals that location, physical appearance, landscape features, and quality of views represent as the physical characteristics in streets, which play different roles in accessibility, recognition, legibility, safety, comfort, and visibility.
City centers, commercial streets, physical characteristics, sense of place
The paper explores the impact of Community Empowerment Program (CEP) of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), one of largest and diversified NGOs in Bangladesh, more popularly known by its acronyms BRAC, in challenging violence against women. The reference point for analysis in the paper is the women CEP members' own perception about their life transformation in general and their stand towards violence in particular. Unlike other research studies conducted in this area that focuses on women's financial freedom, this paper focuses on violence against women, one of the most vital indicator of women's socio- political empowerment. The paper is based on both primary and secondary data. Qualitative primary data were collected from women beneficiaries of CEP program in Bangladesh. This paper argues that CEP can be a useful empowerment tool that can reduce domestic violence against women but only when combined with women and their husband's education and training It concludes that education and training are more important that should be the focus of all CEP programs.
Community empowerment program, socio political empowerment, women's mobility
This study is aimed to reveal financial literacy among students and efforts to improve the financial literacy. This study used a mixed method. A quantitative approach is used to rate students about financial literacy of six components: insurance, stock market, financing, pension fund, pawn, and banking. The result showed that the majority of students was in the category of sufficient literate and also showed that financial literacy was the lowest in the insurance sector. This is partly caused by a lack of education about insurance in the Faculty of Economics. In order to improve financial literacy, especially in the field of insurance, we used triple helix model of the relationship between the University, Government and Financial Industry. In University, we can create an effective learning model positively correlated with the understanding related financial product where the financial product is a component of financial literacy. The Role of Government in this context is the OJK as overseeing and regulating the respective regulations of the financial industry. Financial Industry conducted socialization for students and society to make people believe more in their products. The cooperation of these three sectors are important to create a good synergy among parties related to financial literacy.
Financial education, financial literacy, financial products, triple helix model
Prawn farming is one of the most important sectors emerging in the aquaculture industries in Malaysia which requires the consideration of the factors determining its spatial distribution. However, institutions charged with the responsibility of land suitability classification often neglect the incorporation of the local knowledge in their land use planning. The aim of the study was to identify the factors that determine the suitability of a site for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Negeri Sembilan of Peninsular Malaysia through the local knowledge. Data were collected from 64 prawn farmers and 10 fisheries officers in Negeri Sembilan using a questionnaire. Twelve factors were identified comprising water qualities (distance to sources of water, water temperature, water pH, distance to source of pollution), soil characteristics (land use type, slope, elevation, soil texture) and infrastructure facilities (distance to roads, distance to market, distance to electricity, distance to fry source). Pearson correlation and multiple regression statistics were applied to analyse the data. The correlation result revealed that giant freshwater prawn farming was greatly affected by water qualities with r(62) = 0.669, p=0.000 values, soil characteristics r(62) = 0.559, p = 0.000 values, and infrastructure factors r(62) = 0.566 with p = 0.000 values. The regression analysis indicated that the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.951, meaning that 95.1% of suitability is affected by the water quality, soil characteristics and the infrastructure facilities. Therefore, the determination of the factor for a suitable site for prawn farming can be achieved through the local knowledge.
Analysis of land factors, giant freshwater prawn farming, local knowledge, Negeri Sembilan of Peninsular Malaysia, site suitability
The enforcement of the obligation to use the Indonesian language in international commercial contracts, which is a mandate from Act No. 24 of 2009 regarding the National Flag, Language, Coat of Arms, and Anthem, has become an issue and been brought to court. The Supreme Court finally decided in 2015 that an English language international commercial contract is void. The decision has provided clarity on the controversy after seven years of enforcing this obligation due to the lack of implementing a regulation that could further explain the phrase "must" in the provision of Article 31 of said law, which led to multiple interpretations among stakeholders. Although precedent is not recognized in Indonesia, this issue still brings uneasiness among investors, especially foreign ones. In facing this issue, this article discusses what steps must be taken by investors to avoid a lawsuit demanding the annulment of their foreign language contracts. Government Regulation 57/2014 (2014), as an ancillary of Act 24/2009, is silent on the use of the Indonesian language in international commercial contracts. This article therefore argues that a presidential decree to implement the regulation as mandated by Article 31 of Act 24 of 2009 should be enacted immediately to provide legal certainty to foreign investors who may have contracts with Indonesian private parties.
Act 24/2009, Indonesian language, international contract, legal certainty, mandatory rule
This essay critically analyzes two partakers of environmental ethics: environment and human, to understand how these are conceptualized in the discipline. I argue this critical evaluation is particularly necessary to comprehend why after more than four decades since environmental ethics has emerged, we arrive at the zenith of the Anthropocene. I see this analysis would precisely demarcate the ground, environmental ethics needs to cover to become appropriate for the era of the Anthropocene. This essay affirms that it is high time to delve into the relationship between human and the environment to understand the relational conceptualization of environment for adopting a hybridized notion to meet the needs of the hour. This concludes that adopting phenomenology as a theoretical perspective as well as a methodological tool could enable environmental ethics to uphold a relational conceptualization of environment—appropriate for the Anthropocene.
The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy of gym members and muscular endurance performance, measured from a push-up test. Data were collected from 70 male participants aged 18-25 years (M = 20.87, SD = 2.15). Prior to the push-up task, the participants were asked to rate the push-up self-efficacy scale, and they then performed the push-ups test using a "malan" detector. The participants were asked to do as many push-ups as possible in 1 min. Pearson correlation showed a positive significant relationship in that members who increased in self-efficacy also increased their push-up scores. This study concludes that the self-efficacy scale used for the specific exercise tasks (push-up) is a good instrument to assess a person's performance in an exercise program. The findings can inform gym trainers on effective means of providing motivational support for non-members of members who seldom visit the gym. Gym trainers can also benefit from the results in dealing with potential new members during free trial. The ability of gym trainers to influence new members in undertaking a comfortable and beneficial regime can increase the likelihood of members' adhering to the programme.