Family is the primary institution in which the initial experiences of social relations take shape. Human beings are born into families and form their own families in return. The present study concerns the major preferences and criteria that Iranians hold for selecting the right spouse. The main question of the study is about the transformations that spouse choosing, and its underlying criteria, have undergone. It assesses the attitudinal aspects regarding the "ideal spouse" and is concerned about the choice of either husband or wife. The chief method of the study is secondary analysis of quantitative data gathered at the national level. The sources of the research are comprised of all surveys that measure Iranians 15 years old and above. The findings of the research indicate that the changes of Iranians' understanding of the "ideal spouse" have been next to nothing. People's behavioural patterns in choosing a spouse do not entirely match their attitudinal preferences; in other words, despite the change in behaviour, Iranians' preferences for the ideal spouse has hardly changed in attitude.
Marginality or informal settlement is an important subject in urban issues that generates negative and destructive consequences for the mental health of those who reside in such areas. It is of such significance that is addressed in macro-policies of the Fifth Development Plan of Iran. Given the importance of marginality as a concerning issue, this paper explores the relationship between social capital and mental health of the inhabitants of marginalised areas of the city of Kermanshah using field method and survey technique. The statistical society includes all inhabitants of marginalised areas of Kermanshah city aged 18 years and older. A total of 384 individuals were examined as the sample using the Cochran formula. Results indicate that there are significant and positive relationships between the total social capital (P=0.34) and its various aspects, including social trust (P=0.40), social solidarity (P=0.32), social participation (P=0.37), social support (P=0.30) and social awareness (P=0.24), with mental health. Results from AMOS show that, in general, the effect of social capital as a dependent variable on the mental health of the youth living in the marginalised area is 0.48. Social capital is a main source of mental health among people living in marginal areas. A society that is rich in social capital can provide people with higher levels of social and health benefits by providing more social support for members, developing social participation and trust, and raising individual and social awareness.
Kermanshah city, marginalised area, mental health, social capital
This article applies rational choice theory to analysis three reformative periods in 19th century Iran: the reforms of AmirKabir, Naser-ed-Din Shah and Sepahsalar. It analyses the arguments of the advocates and opponents of reforms, as well as the reasons and counterarguments of reformers. Using the method of agreement and the method of concomitant variation, it examines the triangular rational interaction of opponents, reformers, and advocates of reforms. Based on a nominal comparison of the arguments of opponents, the reasons they offer in all three reformative periods include: "endangerment of Shah's household", "homeland security disturbance", "the danger of losing territorial integrity of Iran", "political dependency of the reformer and/or his advocates on foreign countries", "neglecting people's rights", "neglecting the opponents' position and threatening their class benefits", and "personal manner of the reformer and/or his advocates". Based on an ordinal comparison, the most repetitive arguments offered by distinct groups of opponents include: "endangerment of Shah's household", "neglecting the opponents' position and threatening their class benefits", "neglecting traditions by the reformer and/or his advocates", and "personal manner of the reformer and/or his advocates". Analysing the triangular interaction of the reformer, advocates, and opponents of reforms indicates that the reform of Sepahsalar is the only one that demonstrates an interaction among reformer, advocates, and opponents. Further, it is the only period in which the reformer and the advocates react to the most repetitive arguments of opponents.
Advocates of reform, AmirKabir, Naser-ed-Din Shah, opponents of reforms, Qajar dynasty, rational choice theory, Sepahsalarl
This paper is an attempt to study the relationship between leisure time and social capital. Attention is paid to the theoretical and conceptual aspects of the two constructs in the literature of the field. An attempt was made to study the association between leisure time and social capital within the framework of extrication between the individual and collective leisure times, as well as intergroup and intra-group social capital. Through a secondary analysis of national surveys data about the Iranian youth, the linkage between leisure time and social capital is statistically analysed. Overall, the findings of the study show that the youth who spend most of their leisure time in collective leisure activities compared to the youth who spend their time in personal activities enjoy more social capital. Society in extending public spaces prepares the chance for the formation and promotion of collective leisure-time activities as contrasted with private and personal leisure- time activities. In cases where they meet the necessary conditions and capabilities, through attending these spaces, youth can reproduce and strengthen the constructive indices and components of social capital.
Collective leisure, Iran, leisure time, personal leisure, social capital, youth
The current research pursues an answer to the question of how female peddlers' verbal and nonverbal communication in the subway in Tehran attracts passengers, encouraging them to buy, and how they apply lingual and paralingual advertisements to sell their commodities. It attempts to analyse the female peddlers' actions that make the passengers shop in the subway. To realise the issue observation, deep interview, consistent presence, and frequent attendance in the designated location for the research (different routes of the subway trains in Tehran) was employed and after necessary investigations on the domain, deliberative results were discovered. For instance, female peddlers in different ages-young, middle aged or elderly-pay significant attention to the acquisition of lingual skills to advertise their commodities, since the peddlers are growing in number every day; some are genius in this regard and invent particular lexis and behaviours, and some others imitate lingual and paralingual skills and the body language from other peddlers to sell their commodities among the passengers. Due to the excessive number of rivals (female peddlers) with comparable products, they are distinguished through the method they use to advertise. Putting together the verbal and nonverbal advertising, the applied method makes each individual unique and different from the others, thus the peddlers attract the passengers' attention to sell their commodities.
Female peddlers, lingual and paralingual skills, method of advertising, subway, Tehran
This research is based on descriptive-analytical study on the changes of aesthetic standards of Iranian women's clothing following the discursive politics during the revolutionary transition era (1979-1981). Until the Islamic revolution, women's clothing was one of the most controversial politico-cultural issues for decades. The harsh policies of the Pahlavi regime for women's emancipation and unveiling was opposed by the emotional resistance of religious leaders and their traditionalist followers. Based on social constructionist discourse analysis, this article investigates the aesthetic styles of women's clothing during turbulent era and examines the discursive practices of various dominant and competing groups and ideologies. Laclau and Mouffe discourse analysis method is used to analyse the polemics and practices carried out by all competing classes and ideological discourses that resulted in the domination of hijab at a national level. The dominant revolutionary discourse opposed the symbolic power of modernity, freedom, and rationality represented by western fashion and replaced a symbolic force of morality, chastity, and conceitedness. This symbolic power has since remained alive although contested in a variety of forms due to social and cultural changes. Although the form of Iranian women's clothing after 1979 revolution remained a religious code, the aesthetics of woman's clothing is still influenced by numerous cultural, social, economic, and political factors. The post-revolution discursive politics led to the homogenisation of women's clothing in Iran denying the differences between clothing cultures.
Discursive politics, Iran, revolutionary transition era, women clothing
The primary objective in scientifically examining social problems is preparing the grounds for solving them. One of the essential steps in designing concrete practical measures to address social problems is determining the order of priority between social problems, as social problems are innumerable, while a society's resources in resolving them are limited. Iranian researchers have made several attempts at prioritising Iran's social problems. Yet, in addition to being very few, they suffer from several methodological flaws that drastically diminish their credibility. In the article at hand, we will first analyse the key concepts of social problem and methodology. Thereafter, we will examine the various methods and criteria used in the most credible studies available that have attempted to prioritise Iran's social problems. From this examination and analysis, we have inferred five principal theoretic steps that need to be observed in the prioritisation of social problems so as to ensure the credibility and practical applicability of the article: (1) deciding who determines the priorities, (2) defining a particular theoretic approach, (3) drafting a comprehensive list of prospective social problems, (4) ensuring the homogeneity of the proposed social problems, and (5) defining a clear and distinct criterion for prioritisation.
Iran's social problems, methodology, prioritising, social problems
Access to justice as a procedure and practice-based concept is defined as the capacity of people to access judicial organisations and institutions. While having the problem of access to justice is ordinary among different groups of people, women may be affected more frequently for accessing these institutions and organisations, as they have to overcome many socio-political, economic, and structural barriers that reinforce this inaccessibility. This article emphasizes on women's access to family justice in Iran. It explores the perspective of women who have experienced Iran's judiciary system in terms of divorce, custody, dowry, and alimony in the family court. The data were collected through the women referring to the family courts, and data analysis was conducted based on thematic framework. The participants acknowledged low levels of legal awareness, feminisation of poverty, and low self-esteem because of the masculine hegemonic structure as the major barriers in their access to family justice.
Access to justice, barriers, Iran, judiciary system, women
This article shows, as Peter Berger's desecularisation theory indicates, that the contemporary world is mainly religious as much as it was in the past, and although pluralisation somewhat loosens religious beliefs, people are largely religious. On a probability sample of a national survey in Iran, we show that Iranian's people are mainly religious. However, they are not very comment to religious behaviours, especially in treatment with others and the affairs of everyday life. Also, education has a negative, but minor impact on individuals' religiousness. However, it exerts a more impact on other dimensions of religious life, religious tolerance, and secularisation of individuals.
Education, individual secularisation, pluralisation, religiousness, religious tolerance
Altruism is a voluntary action aiming to help others without reward expectation. In this type of action, the individual cares for others' interests rather than those of his own. This type of behaviour that goes beyond social norms falls into the sphere of morality. The frequency of such actions in society promises ethical behaviour. In this regard, the role of the family as one of the most important agents of socialisation is highlighted. This article seeks to examine altruism among the Iranian families and show its process of change over a decade (from 2005 to 2015). The findings of a longitudinal study were used to achieve this objective. This survey was done in 2005, for the first time, and was repeated in 2015, for the second time, in two developed and less developed regions of Tehran, using cluster sampling. The results show that the number of people showing altruistic actions declined by 7percent between 2005 and 2015 (from 26 percent to 19.2 percent). The number of people having high altruistic attitudes was higher in 2005 compared to 2015 (90.9 percent versus 86.6 percent). Also, the number of people with high cultural capital was more in 2005 compared to 2015. Accordingly, altruism among Tehranian citizens has declined within a decade, while the economic and social capital has slightly increased. In both surveys, there is a noteworthy relationship between social capital and altruistic attitudes with altruistic actions, specifically regarding marital status.
Altruistic action, altruistic attitude, cultural capital, economic capital, social capital
The massive entrance of Iranian women into the labour market and higher education has formed a type of women's experience of modernity in Iran, which is followed by many consequences for women who are both educated and employed. Women with traditional identities and roles, above all, were defined within the home environment and with traditional sexual roles. It was within this traditional framework that most important religious socialisation and practices of women were defined. The main subject of the present article is the consequence of women's reflexive identity on their religious and spiritual identity. For this purpose, interviews and ethnographic methods were used. The reflexive identity of Iranian women has led them to move out of traditional roles and find a combination of traditional roles (housekeeping, motherhood, and wife-hood in the traditional sense) and new roles (defined by individualism and realisation of self and reflexive identity) as a result of higher education and employment experiences. Field data indicate the shift by this group of women from traditional spirituality as the realm dominated by traditional religious institutions to modern spirituality and consequential redefinition of individual assignments and inner life accordingly. The results show that Iranian women's choice to achieve social ideals through education and employment and by following the principle to consecrate life have transformed the spiritual aspects of their lives.
Drug addiction is a social problem that destroys families and communities. It has disastrous social effects, not only on the addicted individual, but also on their families. The present study is a sociological analysis of people's experiences living in households with a drug addicted member. This research is based on qualitative investigation of these types of families with the focus on wives and daughters of the addicted member. It was conducted in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. To better understand these experiences, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative framework. Our results show that these families have endured agonizing periods. The problems they encountered can be divided into two groups: (1) Problems related to their primary needs (i.e. shelter, food, health and treatment, education, security, and peace), and (2) The rest of their problems related to their relationships and interactions with the rest of the community. The experiences of families with a member who is suffering from substance abuse include tension, uncertainty, anxiety, indifference from the individual addict, threat to their livelihood, shame, damaged dignity, isolation, loneliness, deprivation of support from others, and feelings of pain and misery. Furthermore, these issues in addition to a lack of adequate social support (emotional, consultation, and financial) provide the ground for further social harms and other pitfalls for these families.
Addiction, drug, family, the sociological effects of an addict father
Iran is one of the top refugee-hosting countries in the world. After the beginning of war in Afghanistan in the late 1970s and 1980s, Iran opened its borders to Afghan refugees. Unlike Pakistan, Iran allowed Afghans to enter the country and reside in the mainland, in cities, and villages, instead of accommodating them in border camps. That was an unusual decision that was not effectuated by Iran's government during the 1990s ongoing wave of immigrations. This paper explores the main causes for the open door policy adopted by Iran in the mentioned period and investigates the consequences that resulted from this policy. Unlike many scholars who claim the immigration policy of the time to be the result of either ideological or calculated decisions, this paper argues that there was no other alternative for the new government in the peculiar circumstances of a post-revolutionary country.
Folkways and Rituals as one of the central aspects of culture in every society have entertained the minds of anthropologists and sociologists. Researchers have analysed rituals in religious and mythological frameworks, but the current article has taken a different approach toward the phenomenon by articulating it within the important sphere of economy, hence ritual economy. The analytical framework of the current research is based on the formulation of two embedded and disembedded economies as scaled on the ideal type economy. The specification of ideal type market in the present study is a combination of Karl Polanyi's theoretical approach toward the embeddedness of economic activities within the pre-modern economy and its disembededess toward the modern one, with a glance at Weber's ideal type of traditional and modern economies. The findings of the study show that the economic action of bazaaris has transformed from the ritual, embedded economy toward a disembedded one. The inherent changes could be analysed to have resulted from the conventional order, action orientations, conventional forms of interaction, and the logic behind action in bazaar. The findings indicate that modern economy is imposing its logic onto non-modern economies.